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Undecidability, Uncomputability, and Unpredictability Essay Contest
December 24, 2019 - April 24, 2020
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What Is “Fundamental”
October 28, 2017 to January 22, 2018
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Wandering Towards a Goal
How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention?
December 2, 2016 to March 3, 2017
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Trick or Truth: The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics
Contest Partners: Nanotronics Imaging, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, and The John Templeton Foundation
Media Partner: Scientific American


How Should Humanity Steer the Future?
January 9, 2014 - August 31, 2014
Contest Partners: Jaan Tallinn, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, The John Templeton Foundation, and Scientific American

It From Bit or Bit From It
March 25 - June 28, 2013
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Questioning the Foundations
Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?
May 24 - August 31, 2012
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Is Reality Digital or Analog?
November 2010 - February 2011
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What's Ultimately Possible in Physics?
May - October 2009
Contest Partners: Astrid and Bruce McWilliams

The Nature of Time
August - December 2008

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Steve: on 2/24/11 at 12:58pm UTC, wrote Hi dear Jozsef Garai, Interesting essay. I liked this small taxonomy, it...

Jess Tauber: on 2/18/11 at 19:57pm UTC, wrote In addition, leftward counts from the right edge (alkaline earths) of the...

Valery Tsimmerman: on 2/18/11 at 19:33pm UTC, wrote Congratulations. It is very interesting work. I would like to suggest that...

Alan Lowey: on 2/16/11 at 11:38am UTC, wrote Hi Jozsef, I liked the structural approach to the thinking in your essay. I...

Jozsef Garai: on 2/15/11 at 11:27am UTC, wrote Essay Abstract Following a short discussion on the digital and the...


H.H.J. Luediger: "Even darker.... one can not easily downrate a racehorse to a donkey, but..." in Undecidability,...

Steve Agnew: "Well thank-you, you are very kind. I have come to appreciate the fact that..." in Quantum Dream Time

Samuel Parsons: "O also means a whole new universe in a box can be recreated a miniverse..." in Outside the Box

Samuel Parsons: "Is it 127? It's always comes back here. Just saying also I'm trying to..." in Outside the Box

Zeeya Merali: "INSPYRE, INternational School on modern PhYsics and REsearch, organized by..." in Welcome to INSPYRE 2020 -...

David Sloan: "Dear Alan, For any discussion regarding the essay contest, the contact..." in Undecidability,...

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May 28, 2020

CATEGORY: Is Reality Digital or Analog? Essay Contest (2010-2011) [back]
TOPIC: Digital Description of the Periodic System by Jozsef Garai [refresh]
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Author Jozsef Garai wrote on Feb. 15, 2011 @ 11:27 GMT
Essay Abstract

Following a short discussion on the digital and the analog description of reality the most important digital feature of nature, the Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, is investigated. The symmetry pattern of the system emergies when the elements are arranged in an increasing atomic number order. Symmetry relatig to nuclear charge can only be possible if the positions of the nucleons are preserved. The size of protons and neutrons is almost the same. Thus the representation of the nucleons by equal spheres is adequate. Under the enormus nuclear force the nucleons predictably utilize the space in the most efficient way and arranged in a closest packing array. The basic building blocks of the closest packing arrangments are tetrahedrons and octahedrons. If someone wants to look for structural symmetry patterns then the expansion of these units should be investigated first. The first sequence of the Perodic System is completed by the four nucleons of Helium, indicating a tetrahedron “seed” for the nuclear structure. Assuming alternate proton and neutron arrangement in the lattice and investigating the expansion of tetrahedron it reveals that the lattice positions reproduces all of the quantum numbers. The reproduction is not only numerical but lattice positions represent the same physics described by quantum mechanics. Thus the nuclear lattice model offers a credible physical exlanation for quantum theory. In order to reproduce the sequences of the periodic system the core tetrahedron is alternately expanded into two directions forming a “double tetrahedron” shape. Based on this nuclear lattice model mathematical equations describing the sequencies of the periodic system are derived. Physical model explaining the identical symmetry of the nucleus and the electronic structure of the chemical elements is also presented.

Author Bio

My original profession is civil engineer. I also earned an MSc from SUNY Stony Brook in Space and Earth Sciences and a PhD from Florida International University. My favorite pass time is to think on unresolved theoretical questions, which I try attacking with an open mind. This approach many times results in non-conventional solutions, like the submitted one. If you are inerested to learn about other progressive ideas developed by the author then please visit my web-site ( or do a search under my name at the Physics Archive site (

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Alan Lowey wrote on Feb. 16, 2011 @ 11:38 GMT
Hi Jozsef, I liked the structural approach to the thinking in your essay. I have a novel idea with regard to the structure of reality which you may be interested in incidentally. You're the first to start from the perspective of the periodic table, which I admire very much. A physical representation of the hydrogen atom is essential in our ourstanding of the quantum world imo. Best of luck. Alan

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Valery Tsimmerman wrote on Feb. 18, 2011 @ 19:33 GMT
Congratulations. It is very interesting work. I would like to suggest that the tetrahedral arrangements offered by Dr. Garai is not the only one possible. Jess Tauber and I found different tetrahedral arrangements that agree with the Periodic System just as well, if not even better. My favorite is ADOMAH Tetrahedron that can be viewed at It is based on Janet's Left Step Periodic Table, that in my view is more coherent than Bohr's pyramidal periodic table. Instead of double tetrahedron, ADOMAH is based on assigning two elements to a single sphere, thus mimicking spin quantum number, that has value 1/2. This value was first accepted by Wolfgang Pauli and confirmed later with relativistic calculations by Paul Dirac. Jess Tauber recently noticed that every other alkaline earth metal has atomic number corresponding to the tetrahedral number and those in between, are exact arithmetic means of the tetrahedral numbers.

I find it remarkable. It strongly supports the idea of tetrahedral character of the periodic system.

Valery Tsimmerman.

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Jess Tauber replied on Feb. 18, 2011 @ 19:57 GMT
In addition, leftward counts from the right edge (alkaline earths) of the Left-Step Janet PT using triangular numbers from the Pascal Triangle always fall upon ml=0 values. And mapping Fibonacci, Lucas, and other similarly Golden-Ratio convergent numbers as atomic numbers is nonarbitrary- the Fib numbers are leftmost in half orbitals, the Lucas numbers rightmost, and the next two series mostly on ml=0. I'm sure there's more.

Jess Tauber

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Steve wrote on Feb. 24, 2011 @ 12:58 GMT
Hi dear Jozsef Garai,

Interesting essay. I liked this small taxonomy, it could be well if you insert the volumes and the rotations proportionals but for that the real number of the entanglement must be inserted rationally at my humble opinion.

The lattices if the volumes of decreasing are inserted appear totally differently.The quantization of mass is very important and must respect the newtonian fractalization.You know I have classed the elets with mendeleev and biology and chemistry, the real secret is about the ultim entanglement, the fusion mass light in time space evolution is better understood with the rotations spinals and orbitals of the specific entanglement.But the volumes are important and the thermodynamics also.

Good luck in this contest.



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