Search FQXi


If you are aware of an interesting new academic paper (that has been published in a peer-reviewed journal or has appeared on the arXiv), a conference talk (at an official professional scientific meeting), an external blog post (by a professional scientist) or a news item (in the mainstream news media), which you think might make an interesting topic for an FQXi blog post, then please contact us at forums@fqxi.org with a link to the original source and a sentence about why you think that the work is worthy of discussion. Please note that we receive many such suggestions and while we endeavour to respond to them, we may not be able to reply to all suggestions.

Please also note that we do not accept unsolicited posts and we cannot review, or open new threads for, unsolicited articles or papers. Requests to review or post such materials will not be answered. If you have your own novel physics theory or model, which you would like to post for further discussion among then FQXi community, then please add them directly to the "Alternative Models of Reality" thread, or to the "Alternative Models of Cosmology" thread. Thank you.

Contests Home


Previous Contests

What Is “Fundamental”
October 28, 2017 to January 22, 2018
Sponsored by the Fetzer Franklin Fund and The Peter & Patricia Gruber Foundation
read/discusswinners

Wandering Towards a Goal
How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention?
December 2, 2016 to March 3, 2017
Contest Partner: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Fund.
read/discusswinners

Trick or Truth: The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics
Contest Partners: Nanotronics Imaging, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, and The John Templeton Foundation
Media Partner: Scientific American

read/discusswinners

How Should Humanity Steer the Future?
January 9, 2014 - August 31, 2014
Contest Partners: Jaan Tallinn, The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, The John Templeton Foundation, and Scientific American
read/discusswinners

It From Bit or Bit From It
March 25 - June 28, 2013
Contest Partners: The Gruber Foundation, J. Templeton Foundation, and Scientific American
read/discusswinners

Questioning the Foundations
Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?
May 24 - August 31, 2012
Contest Partners: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, SubMeta, and Scientific American
read/discusswinners

Is Reality Digital or Analog?
November 2010 - February 2011
Contest Partners: The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation and Scientific American
read/discusswinners

What's Ultimately Possible in Physics?
May - October 2009
Contest Partners: Astrid and Bruce McWilliams
read/discusswinners

The Nature of Time
August - December 2008
read/discusswinners

Forum Home
Introduction
Terms of Use

Order posts by:
 chronological order
 most recent first

Posts by the author are highlighted in orange; posts by FQXi Members are highlighted in blue.

By using the FQXi Forum, you acknowledge reading and agree to abide by the Terms of Use

 RSS feed | RSS help
RECENT POSTS IN THIS TOPIC

ari saaput: on 7/17/18 at 14:43pm UTC, wrote 14 Pengobatan Gonore pada Wanita Secara Obat Kencing Nanah Alami Gonore...

Philip Fellman: on 10/30/09 at 23:53pm UTC, wrote Hi Ken: A couple of quick points, and since you know I like your essay,...

Narendra Nath: on 10/28/09 at 16:15pm UTC, wrote i note that you are interested in the foundations of Quantum mechanics. I...

Ken Wharton: on 10/23/09 at 18:00pm UTC, wrote Thanks, everyone, for the comments -- here's a quick stab at all the...

Philip Fellman: on 10/21/09 at 21:09pm UTC, wrote Hi Ken: I thought I submitted a comment earlier to the effect that it is...

Terry Padden: on 10/9/09 at 12:41pm UTC, wrote Ken A first class essay about real physics. I have one disagreement...

Owen Cunningham: on 10/6/09 at 16:47pm UTC, wrote A copy of this message is being left in each thread of the essay contest...

Mark Stuckey: on 10/6/09 at 16:31pm UTC, wrote Hi Ken, Glad to see you entered the contest. I enjoy reading your essays...


RECENT FORUM POSTS

Steve Dufourny: "Hi Eckard,you seems persuaded by your Words and thoughts.I don t understand..." in First Things First: The...

Eckard Blumschein: "In Darwinism/Weismannism there is no first cause, just a causal chain...." in First Things First: The...

Steve Agnew: "There are some questions that do not seem to have answers in the classical..." in Schrödinger’s Zombie:...

Steve Agnew: "Yes, there are two very different narratives. The classical narrative works..." in Schrödinger’s Zombie:...

Steve Dufourny: "lol no indeed it is not a lot,like I said I liked your general ideas.I have..." in The Demon in the Machine...

Steve Agnew: "There are three assumptions...is that a lot? The aether particle mass, the..." in The Demon in the Machine...


RECENT ARTICLES
click titles to read articles

First Things First: The Physics of Causality
Why do we remember the past and not the future? Untangling the connections between cause and effect, choice, and entropy.

Can Time Be Saved From Physics?
Philosophers, physicists and neuroscientists discuss how our sense of time’s flow might arise through our interactions with external stimuli—despite suggestions from Einstein's relativity that our perception of the passage of time is an illusion.

Thermo-Demonics
A devilish new framework of thermodynamics that focuses on how we observe information could help illuminate our understanding of probability and rewrite quantum theory.

Gravity's Residue
An unusual approach to unifying the laws of physics could solve Hawking's black-hole information paradox—and its predicted gravitational "memory effect" could be picked up by LIGO.

Could Mind Forge the Universe?
Objective reality, and the laws of physics themselves, emerge from our observations, according to a new framework that turns what we think of as fundamental on its head.


FQXi FORUM
October 14, 2019

CATEGORY: What's Ultimately Possible in Physics? Essay Contest (2009) [back]
TOPIC: The Ultimate Physics Experiment by Ken Wharton [refresh]
Bookmark and Share
Login or create account to post reply or comment.

Author Ken Wharton wrote on Oct. 5, 2009 @ 10:55 GMT
Essay Abstract

The ultimate limit of physics is not a theoretical limit, but rather an experimental one; without testable results (at least in principle), any purported theory could not be said to be physical, or even an application of the scientific method. Using a few basic tools from modern physics, this essay is an attempt to deduce those ultimate experimental limits.

This analysis ascribes a central importance to the very successful variational principles (VPs) used in both general relativity and quantum theory. Applying such VPs in some measureable 4D region of spacetime requires one to constrain partial-information boundary conditions on the 3D (hypersurface) boundary of that 4D region. Given the key premise that the constrained, mathematical boundary conditions in VPs directly correspond to values constrained by actual external measurements, one can build up a probabilistic block-universe framework that seems capable of encompassing future developments towards a general theory of measurement and quantum gravity. A general analysis of the ultimate experiments explainable by such a theory yields a reasonable estimation of the limits of physics.

Author Bio

Ken Wharton is an associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at San Jose State University. His research is in quantum foundations, with a particular interest in approaches outside the standard quantum formalism that permit a straightforward extension into the framework described by general relativity.

Download Essay PDF File

Bookmark and Share



Uncle Al wrote on Oct. 5, 2009 @ 15:28 GMT
I'm rooting for you, Ken. Theory predicts what it is told to predict. Alas, not here. Look at the competition's content and how it is regarded by FQXi keepers - don't ever look! "Charged photons - an educated guess" (are supernovae dedicated to irony?) is FQXi rated 2.7. If photons are charged, what then of vacuum photon-photon scattering? Phys. Rev. 46 1087 (1934) and then Phy. Rev. Lett. 79 1626 (1997) are definitively falsifying. "Pursuing the Limits of Failed Symmetry," consistent with theory and with a punctilious and facile experimental program to validate or falsify its conjecture, rated a 1.4. Don't look!

Draw a triangle on a globe of the Earth to make Euclid cry. String theory and SUSY are viable precisely because they cannot be tested. They are stable guild employment. That they embody testable founding postulates is heresy of the blackest sort. Somebody should look.

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Ian Durham wrote on Oct. 5, 2009 @ 17:09 GMT
Hey Ken, nice essay! I have mixed feelings about some of your points, though. The first is a minor point - that inflation is "unproven" physics. It had been my impression that inflation is on pretty solid ground as a model (mind you, my opinion is colored by my view of what physics is - so you might want to read my essay). The second is this assertion that we can ignore the theoretical when probing the limits of physics. The reason I think we can't is because the theoretical side often drives the experimental side (and, of course, it works the other way around). Both are indispensable. What I mean is that it is sometimes radical theoretical concepts that give us the ideas for our experiments. Pushing theory to the boundary should act as a check and balance against pushing experiment to the boundary. They're inextricably linked. Also, I wonder about the range of applicability of VPs. It seems to me that I could envision problems in which you simply do not have enough information.

Nevertheless, I did like your take on conditional probabilities and your use of joint probability distributions. I have always thought there was some deeper connection between conditional probabilities, epistemic states, and reference frames, but haven't gotten beyond the "pondering" stage.

Good luck!

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Mark Stuckey wrote on Oct. 6, 2009 @ 16:31 GMT
Hi Ken,

Glad to see you entered the contest. I enjoy reading your essays whether I agree with you or not because you write so well. In this case, there is one point I'm wondering about.

Perhaps I'm missing something, but it seems your view of measurement on the hypersurfaces enclosing 4-volumes assumes a separable spacetime structure, what Healey calls "constitutively local." If I'm right, how do you see your thesis being modified by constitutive non-locality? If you're not sure what I mean by this, see Figure 8 and comments pertaining thereto in our arXiv paper.

Mark

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Owen Cunningham wrote on Oct. 6, 2009 @ 16:47 GMT
A copy of this message is being left in each thread of the essay contest forum.

Submitters: Tired of constantly checking the FQXI site to see how your paper's doing in the rankings? I've written a simple program that periodically checks the FQXI site and sends you an email if the status of your paper has changed in any way. Here is a sample email:

The following changes were detected in the status of your paper:

* Number of posts in discussion forum went from 0 to 20.

* Community rating went from 0 to 3.4.

* Community vote count went from 0 to 10.

* Public rating went from 0 to 4.3.

* Public vote count went from 0 to 6.

* Community ranking went from being in 0th place to being tied for 16th out of 112.

* Public ranking went from being in 0th place to being tied for 19th out of 112.

You just run the program once, in a command prompt window, and then minimize that window and let it do its thing in the background.

If you're interested in a copy (with source for those who care) drop me a note at ramblinplan@yahoo.com.

Thanks,

Owen Cunningham

P.S. This program requires Windows and the .NET Framework. It has been tested only on Windows XP Service Pack 3 running .NET Framework 3.5, but has a good chance of working with earlier versions.

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Terry Padden wrote on Oct. 9, 2009 @ 12:41 GMT
Ken

A first class essay about real physics.

I have one disagreement with your views. Although you recognise it is non physical, you still place heavy reliance on the 4D block universe formalism. Unfortunately you allow it to prescribe your physical conclusions too much. In due course you are confronted by one of these unfortunate consequences - that QM can't handle the absolutely necessary and unavoidable measurements on Time-like spaces of the formalism.

I agree completely that experiment comes first; but as your essay shows we must have some formalism (an epistemology) in which we express our measured results (an ontology). You have no choice but to use the 4D one. Suppose as I discuss in my essay that it is the formalism, including the 4D continuum, that is at fault because it is inadequate. Then even though you are proposing correct physical principles, they cannot express our reality correctly because they are expressed through that faulty formalism.

Until we have the correct formalism your correct physical principles will be shrouded by unscientific mysteries that, as Feynman said "No one understands". A formalism that replaces the Block View with an instantaneous Now is what we need. Such a formalism would of course correspond precisely with everyones experience under all circumstances. Philosophers call it Naive Realism !

PS In fact a major point of your essay is that actual physical measurements are between two different "NOWS". Hence all that hyper-surface stuff. Implicitly you are making my point.

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Philip Vos Fellman wrote on Oct. 21, 2009 @ 21:09 GMT
Hi Ken:

I thought I submitted a comment earlier to the effect that it is nice to see a real physics paper by a real physicist. I still hold to that and think you have done fine work in this paper. I agree with Uncle Al that the ratings are arbitrary and capricious and there's definitely an "I'll vote for you and you vote for me" club out there and one doesn't need quantum game theory to explain it :-) I think you hit the nail on the head about unverifiable theory and this is the central problem in string theory. I wonder what you think of Julian Barbour's treatment of the dynamics of pure shape in GR (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/gr-qc/pdf/0309/0309089v1.pdf) I'm not going to do the annoying thing that I see most other people do and tell you where I agree and disagree with your paper and throw a reference to my work at you, but I'd also be quite interested to know whether you think Hawking's assertion that we will eventually discover hidden non-local variables is relevant to the problems you raise in your paper and whether you see this in the future of gr-qc.

Cheers,

Phil

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Ken Wharton wrote on Oct. 23, 2009 @ 18:00 GMT
Thanks, everyone, for the comments -- here's a quick stab at all the questions in the above posts.

Ian: Concerning inflation, it's certainly widely accepted, but that only means that the *problems* with it have been widely rationalized as acceptable, not that there aren't any serious problems. The biggest point in inflation's favor was a "prediction" of scale invariance of the CMB...

view entire post


Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Narendra Nath wrote on Oct. 28, 2009 @ 16:15 GMT
i note that you are interested in the foundations of Quantum mechanics. I got laid when one finds that both particle and wave nature become synonimous with all physical processes pertaining to the microworld of nuclons, nuclei, atoms and molecules.the classical physics thus gets associated with the macro-world where the particle and wave distinctions get separated. However, quantum mechnanics is valid throughout, as all its results tend to classical ones as one turns Planck's constant h to zero.

Now the problem arises as to the holiness of constant h to be either zero or its full value as ascertained through experoments pn processes that follow quayum mechanics. Is there no in between region where h is neither 0 nor has its designated magnitude. Does physics is bound by two distinct regions with no overalpping in beteen region? Some recent cosmological measurements though isolated, suggest that the value of c, the velocity of light was higher for objects way behind 12 billions. Also, similsr results were obtained for the ratio e/m for light spectra of distant galaxies/stars. If that is so, we can not be sure that the value of h has remained constant since the birth of the universe. In fact, on the basis of different values for c and e/m, i expect the value of h to be smaller near the burth of the universe.

In such a scenario, we expect Physics to be different for the early universe period than what we have evolved over the past few hundred years. The ssay by Tejinder Singh on this forum has proposed an inbetween region called mesomorphic that is in between the classical and quantum extremes. Investigations require samples that have atomic/molecular mass closer to Planck mass. Now such objects may well be prepared as nanostructured heavy 'atoms' of gold. Experimental investigations with such samples will not follow either quantum or classical physics. In fact i believe that many of the mysteries like dark matter/energy, black holes may wellbe amiable to a better understanding of such an intermediate region.Any takers or objectors to such a scenario in Physics!!

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Philip Vos Fellman wrote on Oct. 30, 2009 @ 23:53 GMT
Hi Ken:

A couple of quick points, and since you know I like your essay, I hope we can discuss this in a non-adversarial fashion (as Terry Padden and I have been doing) rather than the "you've got it all wrong, see my essay for details - btw thanks for the careful reading our essay, something that none of us with detailed professional arguments have gotten enough of so far. I was wondering with respect to your answer about my point on Maxwell's equations, and to some extent it is probably more your introducing them in a global fashion, but in either case, I have to ask, do you mean Maxwell's equations as he originally formulated them in quaternionic fashion, or the revised equationsd formulated by Oliver Heaviside that everyone calls "Maxwell's Equations". Also, have you seen Peter Jacks' 2001 solution to differentiating left and right non-commutation in quaternionic equations (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/math-ph/pdf/0307/0307038v1.pdf) which, I think is the proper way to think about the classical formulation of Maxwell's equations. We're working on a treatment of this in terms of a "slight deformation" of quantum mechanics in order to include higher order terms of Maxwell's equations (which were dismissed by Einstein as having insignificant values, which clearly we disagree with, and even Rosen of EPR also disagreed with although we think we may disagree more comprehensively - our paper will show up in the ArXiv eventually on its way to publication). Anyway, without banging on our own idiosyncratic points (which you know is one of my principal objections to much of the discourse in this contest). I think the part of Julian Barbour's work to which I might have an objection (and this comes in some part from his "global" worldview because I am a very big fan of his technical work, as you know from our comments on his derivation of York scaling and the Lichnerowicz-York equation) is the part where he and Peter Lynds disagree, and that is his reliance on static instants in order to build his cosmology, which I regard as "block universe" model. I'm not really sure he holds so closely to Einstein, and in fact, I am quite sure that his studies on the dynamics of pure shape ( arXiv:gr-qc/0309089, arXiv:gr-qc/0211022, arXiv:gr-qc/0211021) and his line of reasoning on "Relativity Without Relativity" ( arXiv:gr-qc/0012089 and arXiv:gr-qc/0201092) are quite opposed to an Einsteinian point of view. I think the business of starting with Einstein was an artifact of last year's competition and we may be guilty, in an 8 page paper of overly emphasizing this aspect of his work.

Cheers,

Phil

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


ari putri saaput wrote on Jul. 17, 2018 @ 14:43 GMT
14 Pengobatan Gonore pada Wanita Secara

Obat Kencing Nanah Alami

Gonore sebenarnya bisa terjadi pada siapa saja, baik pria maupun wanita. Termasuk dalam penyakit menular seksual, gonore ini dipicu oleh sebuah bakteri. Neisseria gonorrhoeae adalah nama dari bakteri tersebut di mana bakteri ini akan dijumpai pada cairan vagina dari wanita yang terkena infeksinya. Nama lain dari bakteri ini adalah gonoccocus dan penyerangan bakteri ini dapat terjadi pada bagian uretra, serviks, dubur, tenggorokan, dan bahkan mata.

Jika wanita terserang Obat Kencing Nanah Di Apotikradang panggul, maka biasanya memang asalnya atau faktor pemicunya adalah dari penyakit gonore ini. Beberapa wanita yang menderita penyakit ini akan merasakan gejala ringan, tapi ada juga beberapa kasus yang gejalanya serius. Demam dan sakit perut adalah dua kondisi yang sangat erat menandakan adanya penyakit gonore.

Penyakit kencing nanah ini OBAT KENCING NANAH HERBAL pada umumnya sangat bisa diobati dengan suntikan tunggal yang diberikan melalui otot. Suntikan tersebut dinamakan seftriakson intramuskuler. Tapi terkadang pengobatan medis yang paling sering lainnya adalah antibiotik melalui mulut atau per-oral.OBAT GONORE Obat tersebut akan diberikan selama seminggu. Tapi selalu ada pilihan pengobatan lain yang lebih alami dan tak kalah efektif.

Bookmark and Share
report post as inappropriate


Login or create account to post reply or comment.

Please enter your e-mail address:
Note: Joining the FQXi mailing list does not give you a login account or constitute membership in the organization.