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FQXi FORUM
May 23, 2019

CATEGORY: It From Bit or Bit From It? Essay Contest (2013) [back]
TOPIC: Why does the cosmic inflation stop at just the right moment? by Kai Olaf Henkel [refresh]
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Author Kai Olaf Henkel wrote on Jun. 14, 2013 @ 16:45 GMT
Essay Abstract

A linear and constant Expansion of space after the big bang does not explain the uniform Setting of our universe. Recent measurments of cosmic background radiation give a strong evidence for the so called cosmic Inflation of space shortly after the big bang. The mechanism of cosmic Inflation, especially the stop of the Inflation at right moment are not understand. The propability for a stop of Inflation at a wrong moment is much higher than at the right moment. In this essay a new theory is described, that explain the beginning and the stop of the cosmic inflation by a very simple way. According to G.U.T. and the second low of thermodynamics the primal force expands, because in this situation no force exists to prevent the energy (space) from Expansion. The gravitational force derived from the primal force at a defined energy level(according to G.U.T.). In this moment time is created and velocities above the light Speed are not possible. Finally the cosmic inflation stops at this moment and a good inflation appered.

Author Bio

1964 Born in Rostock, Germany 1984 Dental degree (D.D.S.) Rostock University 1992 Medical degree (M.D.) Rostock University 1999 Ph.D. thesis Rostock University since 2005 dead of department craniomaxillofacial surgery at military Hospital Hamburg, Germany

Download Essay PDF File

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Joe Fisher wrote on Jun. 15, 2013 @ 16:05 GMT
Professor Henkel,

Please do excuse me, I am a rusty old realist, and I think I have spotted a flaw in your essay. You wrote: “In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, entropy increases in a closed system, which basically means that energy within a system expands.” Why do you take it for granted that the Universe is enclosed?

I think that one real unique Universe could only be eternally occurring in one real unique infinite dimension, once. I could be wrong although I doubt it.

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jun. 21, 2013 @ 13:27 GMT
Dear Mr.Fischer,

thank you for your comment. You are righth the whole universe is eternally, but not the bubble, that was formed by the big bang. This cosmic bubble is limited and expans in to the space outside our cosmic bubble. I think, it is clear that our cosmic bubble is a closed space by the outer surface of our cosmic bubble. Therefore our cosmic bubble, or with common words our universe, is a closed system from a physical point of view.

By this backround I think the use of the second law of thermodynamics for the explanation of the cosmic inflation of our cosmic bubble is right to use for a theory of cosmic inflatiom.

Best regards

Kai Olaf Henkel

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Peter Jackson wrote on Jun. 15, 2013 @ 19:35 GMT
Kai,

Nice well argued essay. As an astronomer I was particularly interested in your original view. I've researched and written on the topic myself certainly agree current "accepted" theory is nonsensical, if fact probably even more fundamentally flawed then you suggest. Though 'accepted' is really the wrong word. Not even the big bang itself is anything like 'universally' accepted.

In fact support forinflation as the cause of the effects prescribed, lies well below the big bang itself, so to say "The existence of cosmic inflation has been "proven" by measurements of cosmic background radiation and present spatial structure" is not something most astronomers would do. As with most science nothing is 'proven' at all and the word should always be avoided (though I agree amny don't). All astronomy is provisional, just like physics and most science. History has taught (most of) us that.

From that standpoint I entirely agree that, if we axiomise inflation, your proposal is very interesting with some advantages over certain others. Yet whether or not the proposal is correct can't be judged. The point here is the essay, and I commend you on yours, worth far more than the standard low scores some trolls are dishing out, which I received too.

I hope you'll also read mine, which is rather ambitious but very 'reality' based with solid references.

I wish you luck in the final results.

Peter

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jun. 23, 2013 @ 08:31 GMT
Der Peter,

Tank you for your comment. Sorry, I am Not a Natural englisch speaker. Thermometer my words in this Essay are relative simple. I agree with you, that the sciences are always in process and our results are only limited and provisional.

I World like to read your article. Please send me your article. I am looking forward to discuss with you.

Best regards

Kai

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John C Maguire wrote on Jun. 16, 2013 @ 22:10 GMT
Interesting read. Could you elaborate a bit more on this:

"Thereby, time is a form of energy linked to the expansion of space."

And forgive me for asking a potentially silly question, but how does Dark Energy fit into this scheme if at all?

All the best.

John

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jun. 23, 2013 @ 09:29 GMT
Dear John,

Thank you for your comment. In this moment I do not take into consideration the Dark Energy, because it is not clear what is the Dark Energy. The Dark Energy is a theoretical energy to acelerates the cosmic expansion, likes it was measured about 15 years ago. But maybe this Concept is wrong, because an other explanation for this acelerations is the assumption of different Speed of Time in side and outside of galaxies. By this assumption the time flies slower in the Space between two galaxies, because the gravity is weaker according the Absence of mass (if there is nö dark Energy or dark matter).

Why is time a form of energy and linked to space?

In chapter three of my essay I develope a thesis about a physical definition of time. Therfore my explanation will be shortly. The explanation for the deviation of a light beam in the gravitation field of the sun due to the concept of space deviation. The basic problem in this concept is the absence of mass of space, it selfs. According to the Newton's Gravitation Law, the gravitationl force is in action between two masses. Well the space has no own mass and so there is no gravitational force effective between the sun and the spae around the Sun.

A Second explanation is the concept of deceleration of time in a strong gravitational field, like it works closly around the Sun. This idea due to the definition of time as the quotient of Space and gravity. Therefore the existente of Time is linked to the existence of space. The basis of gravity is the mass. By Einstein's principle of equivalence energy is the product of mass and the Square of light Speed. Therefore gravity is a special kind of energy. According to the statement "time is the quotient of space and gravity", it is possible to say that time is a form of energy.

I am sorry, it sounds strange but it is logical.

Best regards

Kai

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Hoang cao Hai wrote on Jun. 21, 2013 @ 01:49 GMT
Dear Kai

You conclude that: "The end of inflation is caused by the development of time" and " Time begins with the end of cosmic inflation", so before "the end of inflation" is not time? as well as the "Time begins" is no inflation?

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1802

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jun. 23, 2013 @ 10:25 GMT
Dear Mr. Hoang cao Hai,

Thank you for your nice question.

Well, the existence of Time is linked to the existence of Space and gravity (Please see also chapter three of my Essay and the comment to Mr. Maguire above.)

That means before the gravitational force split off from the primal force at an Energy level of 10 high15GeV (according to G.U.T.) was no time in our space bubble. Because the gravity was formend at this level of energy. You see, there are two Important moments in Theory of Big Bang according to G.U.T. The first, the Big Bang started at a level of energy around 10 high 19GeV and the space was formed, as the first prereqisite exists. The second, is the split off the gravity. In this moment the second prereqisite of time exists. Finally the time came in our cosmic Space bubble at this moment (Energy Level: 10 high 15GeV). That means the time did not started at big bang. The time starts totgehet with the existence of gravity.

The space had the opportunity for an extremly rush expansion, the so called cosmic Inflation. Because velocity is the quotient of distance and time. But there is no Time, there is also no velocity. That means every point can be achived instantaneously.

The Concept of "thermodynamic time arrow" supports also my Concept of Time. Our Space bubble is closed system and therefore the Second Low of Thermodynamic is valid. The Big Bang started with a very High entropy (Fluctuation of quantas due to a High mess, or better entropy. During the cosmic inflation the energy inside our cosmic bubble will be equal spread over the Volume of our Space bubble. That means in the moment of inflation Stops and the time Starts, in this Moment the entropy is very low. By the next steps of development our cosmic Space bubble the entropy is increasing according to the second low of thermodynamic and also the time Runs from history into the future.

What do you think? Some silly ideas?

Best regards

Kai

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Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta wrote on Jun. 28, 2013 @ 01:58 GMT
Dear

Thank you for presenting your nice essay. I saw the abstract and will post my comments soon.

So you can produce material from your thinking. . . .

I am requesting you to go through my essay also. And I take this opportunity to say, to come to reality and base your arguments on experimental results.

I failed mainly because I worked against the main stream. The...

view entire post


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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jun. 28, 2013 @ 17:40 GMT
Der Mr. Gupta,

Nice idea, but I think that is Not possible to cremte matter by only thinking. In my opinion matter is Energy, but thinking is Not Energy.

Best regards

Kai

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Marcus Arvan wrote on Jun. 28, 2013 @ 02:38 GMT
Kai: I'm a bit confused. At present, the speed of the universe's expansion is increasing. So, how is it right to say that cosmic inflation has "stopped at the right moment"?

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel wrote on Jun. 28, 2013 @ 17:35 GMT
Der Marcus,

Sorry that I have confused you. Indeed the Inflation is only the Short period of hughe and rapid Expansion of our cosmic bubble shortly After the Big Bang. After this Periode the Expansion Gose much slower. Therefore it is allowed to Speak from the stop of cosmic Inflation. That means the Moment of change from Explosive (Rapid) to Slow Expansion of Space.

Best regards from

Kai

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Vladimir Rogozhin wrote on Jul. 1, 2013 @ 07:54 GMT
Hello, Kai!

Thank you for a very interesting essay question focuses on the problem of the "beginning" and "inflation." I speak in the contest a second time not as a physicist but as a lyricist. Lyricists on the planet Earth most of them also do not care of what is the Universe. Of the universe (the Greek Cosmos – «order») people interested in the history of its formation as homo sapiens sapiens. The problem is not only in the "inflation" (from her, we were tired in the economy), but also that, when the "laws of nature"?. I have a question: «What is more logical reasoning and in line with our intuition, experience and thousands of years of tradition:" In the Beginning was the Logos ... "or "In the Beginning was the Big Bang?" I also invite you to read my essay ...Regards, Vladimir

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 15:09 GMT
Dear Vladimir,

The Universe, that we can observe is the Space bubble, that was created by the Big Bang. That means, the final question is the nature and the begining of the Thing in this our Space bubble expans. Maybe this is a Logos. Today only some spekulatives are possible.

Der Kai

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James Lee Hoover wrote on Jul. 3, 2013 @ 20:07 GMT
Kai,

If given the time and the wits to evaluate over 120 more entries, I have a month to try. My seemingly whimsical title, “It’s good to be the king,” is serious about our subject.

Jim

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Hoang cao Hai wrote on Jul. 11, 2013 @ 03:23 GMT
Many thanks for your comments , Kai

Can you please tell me more specific about gravity : what do you define it is? how its expression like? why is it happening so?

Hope so to be more discussion with you.

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 15:23 GMT
Dear Mr.Hoang cao Hai,

Well, today nobody knows what gravity is. I think it is a Special Interaction of quantas in the Space. For Example, it is possible that two quantas are conected in shape of a fourangle. The area inside this fourangle describes the gravity.

I am Not sure.

Kai

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Manuel S Morales wrote on Jul. 13, 2013 @ 13:44 GMT
Dear Prof. Dr. Kai-Olaf Henkel,

After your clarification in response to Mr. Hoang cao Hai question that, "The time starts together with the existence of gravity." I realized that you had reached relatively the same conclusions that I have. The empirical evidence (not opinion) obtained in the recently concluded 12 year experiment I have conducted substantiates your position stated.

You are not alone in your assessment!

Best wishes,

Manuel Morales

msm@physicsofdestiny.com

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 15:25 GMT
Dear Manuel,

Thank you for your comment. I am happy, that I stand Not alone.

Thank you again,

Kai

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Antony Ryan wrote on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 10:29 GMT
Dear Kai,

Nice work and original. I've never bought the classical view of inflation, so welcome anything that questions it. Very interesting. Do you think this suggests It or Bit as more fundamental? I think you're initial point that it is far more likely that classical inflation stops at an unfavourable point rather than when it seems to have is good!

If given the time, please take a look at my essay.

Best wishes for the contest,

Antony

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 15:42 GMT
Dear Antony,

I think the stop of the cosmic Inflation is determined by the Energy Level of seperating gravity. That means the occurence of time in our Space bubble. Therefore the Inflation has to stop at the right Moment. Finally, maybe it is possible to say the it (Level of Energy) createds the Bit. Because for realising the Message of a Bit the existence of Time is nessecary.

Best regards.

Kai

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Antony Ryan replied on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 19:40 GMT
Dear Kai,

Thanks for the reply. Nice approach that time becomes necessary. Great way to answer the question!

Best wishes,

Antony

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Anonymous wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 12:11 GMT
Dear Kai,

A new way of looking at cosmology. Well done!

You can check my essay and rate if you like it.

Best regards,

Akinbo

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Author Kai Olaf Henkel replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 15:28 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Thank you for your comment.

Best regards

Kai

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Antony Ryan wrote on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 19:40 GMT
I've lost a lot of comments and replies on my thread and many other threads I have commented on over the last few days. This has been a lot of work and I feel like it has been a waste of time and energy. Seems to have happened to others too - if not all.

I WILL ATTEMPT to revisit all threads to check and re-post something. Your thread was one affected by this.

I can't remember the full extent of what I said, but I have notes so know that I rated it very highly.

Hopefully the posts will be able to be retrieved by FQXi.

Best wishes,

Antony

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Sreenath B N wrote on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 08:32 GMT
Dear Dr.Kai,

I have down loaded your essay and soon post my comments on it. Meanwhile, please, go through my essay and post your comments.

Regards and good luck in the contest,

Sreenath BN.

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1827

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Sreenath B N replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 08:33 GMT
Dear Dr. Kai-Olaf,

You have clearly explained why ‘cosmic inflation theory’ is to be accepted rather than the ‘inflaton field theory’. The hypothetical particles called ‘inflatons’ produced as a result of inflation is summarily rejected by you and giving good reasons for that. The problem of the existence of space and time is solved in your model and it is this which is responsible for the stop of inflation approximately shortly after the big bang at the energy level of about 10^15 GeV. Your conclusion then is “Time begins with the end of cosmic inflation and not just after the big bang”. Your derivation of the cause for inflation from the second law of thermodynamics is imaginative and hence is based on solid ground. I appreciate the effort you have put behind in writing this essay in spite of the fact that you are busy in practicing your profession. For this great effort of yours, I will give maximum rating to your well thought out essay.

Please go through my essay also (http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1827) and express your comments on it in my thread before the dead line of 7th Aug.

All the best,

Sreenath

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Peter Jackson wrote on Aug. 5, 2013 @ 10:30 GMT
Kai,

You asked me above to post my essay to you to read. In case you haven't read and scored it, it's here;

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1775

Do ignore the dense Abstract that some have said first put them off, the blog comments include; "groundbreaking", "clearly significant", "astonishing", "fantastic job", "wonderful", "remarkable!", "deeply impressed", etc.

I hope you can get to it before the deadline. I'm sure you will like it.

I'm pleased to confirm I was able to score yours well. Very well done.

Very best wishes

Peter

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Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet wrote on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 08:41 GMT
Kai,

Your essay contains an original thought and I have rated it accordingly.

On page 4 you wrote: "time is a form of energy". That is new to me, I have never heard that before. There are several known substantival approaches to space, but time is usually not viewed as a substance.

Other points in your theory are problematic. Here are some issues:

1) On page 2 you write that "...all forces have fused to primal energy". But 'force' and 'energy' are different concepts. The unit of force is the Newton, in SI units you get [N] = [kg.m.s-2]. The unit of energy is the Joule, and in SI units you get [J] = [kg.m2.s-2]. You have to elaborate on how you get from Newtons to Joules during the fusion process.

2) From your first formula and you third formula it follows that gravity = mass. Now suppose we take two objects of 1 kg; we then let one of them drop 100 meters above the surface of the earth, the other 100 meters above the surface of the moon. Your theory then says that in both cases gravity is the same (namely, 1 kg), while other theories of gravity (Newton's, Einstein's) say that gravity is not the same in these cases. Could you comment on that?

3) The SI unit of mass is kg. From your third formula, we get [kg] = [m3.s-1]. I find that hard to believe. Can you elaborate?

Best regards,

Marcoen

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Peter Jackson wrote on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 15:20 GMT
Dear Kai

For some reason the link I posted was dead. You may have found it, or try this.

The Intelligent Bit

You may have rated it but if you liked it and haven't; a high one before the deadline would be nice, or if it's a low one then after the deadline is better! The astronomy paper I referred to is here; Cyclic Galaxy and Cosmology Paper

Do give me your thoughts.

Best regards

Peter

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Paul Borrill wrote on Aug. 7, 2013 @ 21:12 GMT
Dear Kai,

I have now finished reviewing all 180 essays for the contest and appreciate your contribution to this competition.

I have been thoroughly impressed at the breadth, depth and quality of the ideas represented in this contest. In true academic spirit, if you have not yet reviewed my essay, I invite you to do so and leave your comments.

You can find the latest version of my essay here:

http://fqxi.org/data/forum-attachments/Borrill-TimeOne-
V1.1a.pdf

(sorry if the fqxi web site splits this url up, I haven’t figured out a way to not make it do that).

May the best essays win!

Kind regards,

Paul Borrill

paul at borrill dot com

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Kamilla Kamilla wrote on Apr. 10, 2016 @ 17:11 GMT
This is my first time visit here. From the tons of comments on your articles,I guess I am not only one having all the enjoyment right here!

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Karla Paulino wrote on Nov. 17, 2016 @ 17:19 GMT
this is really great,unique and very informative post, i like it. thanks

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milan joy wrote on Dec. 3, 2016 @ 08:12 GMT
It’s a great article by author Kai Olaf Henkel. The article will give a clear picture about the cosmic inflation of space after the big bang. I have already read his other article before and all of them are well written and very informative.

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micheal le wrote on Dec. 29, 2016 @ 13:42 GMT
cần chịu đựng tầm khoảng hay cảnh này xuất tinh nhanh như là con người quý ông ko. b.sĩ đã chuẩn bị một phiên bản câu các tư thế quan hệ

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micheal le wrote on Dec. 29, 2016 @ 13:46 GMT
hỏi đã có thể phóng để có thể có ít trả lời án đi theo điều tra của cuộc khảo sát này cho rằng 18-45, 1 người cho rằng thường kỳ các tư thế quan hệ

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Ms Ngoc Hien wrote on Mar. 28, 2017 @ 09:57 GMT
Các kỹ năng nâng hàng đa dạng và thực hành trên xe mới hoàn toàn, kèm theo đó là giảng viên có kinh nghiệm nhiều năm. Xem thêm tại đây

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ship ko ren wrote on Jun. 15, 2017 @ 02:13 GMT
Nam gioi thuong lo lang vi kich thuoc cau nho qua be. Do la li do cac chang thuong dung titan gel de giup cau nho to hon. San pham titan gel da tro thanh mot thu quan trong ma tat ca cac cahng deu mong muon su dung hien nay.

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Martin B Linhart wrote on Jul. 10, 2017 @ 03:48 GMT
Mách bạn cách trị mụn và vết thâm hiệu quả

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Martin B Linhart wrote on Jul. 10, 2017 @ 03:51 GMT
hỏi đã có thể phóng để có thể có ít trả lời án đi theo điều tra của cuộc khảo sát này cho rằng 18-45, 1 người cho rằng thường kỳ

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Martin B Linhart wrote on Jul. 10, 2017 @ 03:52 GMT
Bạn đã

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kidz byn wrote on Sep. 5, 2017 @ 04:37 GMT
xuất tinh sớmdo thủ dâm và cách chữa trị xuất tinh sớm hiệu quả

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kidz byn wrote on Sep. 5, 2017 @ 08:57 GMT
sau sinh nen an gi

nên ăn gì khi mang thai

các xét nghiệm khi mang thai

tiêm phòng trước khi mang thai

khám thai định kỳ

chuẩn bị trước khi mang thai

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kidz byn wrote on Sep. 5, 2017 @ 08:58 GMT
[link=https://tamanhhospital.vn/sinh-thuong-va-sinh-mo-nen-g
i-kieng-gi-de-nhieu-sua/]sau sinh nen an gi

[link=https://tamanhhospital.vn/che-dinh-duong-cho-ba-bau-
trong-9-thang-mang-thai/]nên ăn gì khi mang thai

[link=https://tamanhhospital.vn/y-nghia-cua-xet-nghiem-m
au-khi-mang-thai/]các xét nghiệm khi mang thai

[link=https://tamanhhospital.vn/nhung-dieu-can-biet-ve-v
iec-kham-xet-nghiem-truoc-khi-mang-thai-truoc-sinh/]tiêm phòng trước khi mang thai

[ulink=https://tamanhhospital.vn/kham-thai-lan-dau-va-ca
c-moc-kham-thai-quan-trong/]khám thai định kỳ

[link=https://tamanhhospital.vn/nhung-dieu-nen-lam-va-ca
n-tranh-khi-chuan-bi-mang-thai/]chuẩn bị trước khi mang thai

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kidz byn wrote on Sep. 5, 2017 @ 09:00 GMT
sau sinh nen an gi

nên ăn gì khi mang thai

các xét nghiệm khi mang thai

tiêm phòng trước khi mang thai

khám thai định kỳ

chuẩn bị trước khi mang thai

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kidz byn wrote on Sep. 11, 2017 @ 04:35 GMT
xuất tinh sớm

tác hại của xuất tinh sớm

điều trị xuất tinh sớm do thủ dâm

nguyên nhân gây xuất tinh sớm ở nam giới

cách chữa bệnh xuất tinh sớm

nam giới bị xuất tinh sớm nên ăn gì

cách khắc phục rối loạn cương dương và xuất tinh sớm

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claudia ramirez ramirez wrote on Oct. 23, 2018 @ 18:10 GMT
thanks for sharing it seems very useful and interesting is a material that makes me think .

Moda y calzado

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francisca rodriguez rodriguez wrote on Mar. 23, 2019 @ 00:51 GMT
I like the content a lot and the diverse ones electronica

I really like the styles astronomy

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