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FQXi FORUM

March 17, 2018

CATEGORY:
Questioning the Foundations Essay Contest (2012)
[back]

TOPIC: Is the State of Low Energy Stable? Negative Mass and Negative Energy by Hyoyoung Choi [refresh]

TOPIC: Is the State of Low Energy Stable? Negative Mass and Negative Energy by Hyoyoung Choi [refresh]

All this time, the field of physics did not seriously consider the possibility of existence of negative mass (energy) in a general state. The standard explanation of negative mass is that the state of low energy is stable when a negative energy level exists and that the lowest state of energy is minus infinity. Thus, this means that all positive mass emits energy and this will be transitioned to the energy level of minus infinity and the universe will collapse. However, at the present, our universe exists without collapsing, so the explanation for this has become strong proof of the nonexistence of the negative mass and negative energy level of. Thus, we have considered this to be obvious common sense and have taught this to students. At the center of this background, there is the fundamental proposition that ”State of low energy is stable'' In this essay, we will reveal that this proposition is an incomplete, and that it is stable at a low energy state in the case of positive mass. However, it is stable at a high energy state in the case of negative mass. Due to this, "the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity" does not occur, and the existence of negative mass is therefore possible. Moreover, we will show that negative mass provides a qualitative explanation for dark matter and dark energy, which are the biggest issues posed to cosmology at the present.

Bachelor of Science in Physics

A pretty good read. There were two excellent works produced by Don Hotson and published by Infinite Energy Magazine. They are an excellent read that you might find interesting. He examines Dirac's work with emphasis upon the interpretation of the four solutions. He also spends quite a bit of time discussing the hbar/2 value associated with the vacuum.

Good Luck,

Gary Simpson

Houston, Tx

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Good Luck,

Gary Simpson

Houston, Tx

report post as inappropriate

Thanks Gary Simpson!

And some typo

In the caption of Figure 3,

(1200,0,0), (0,1200,0), (0,0,1200) --> (±1200,0,0), (0,±1200,0), (0,0,±1200)

Have a good time!

---Hyoyoung Choi

And some typo

In the caption of Figure 3,

(1200,0,0), (0,1200,0), (0,0,1200) --> (±1200,0,0), (0,±1200,0), (0,0,±1200)

Have a good time!

---Hyoyoung Choi

I am very sorry. Some typo

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Omega_M = - 0.38( ± 0.22)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Omega_M = - 0.4( ±0.1)

-->

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Lamda = 0, Omega_M = - 0.38( ± 0.22)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Lamda = 0, Omega_M = - 0.4( ±0.1)

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Omega_M = - 0.38( ± 0.22)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Omega_M = - 0.4( ±0.1)

-->

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Lamda = 0, Omega_M = - 0.38( ± 0.22)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Lamda = 0, Omega_M = - 0.4( ±0.1)

Dear Hyoyoung,

Experiments show that when two photons annihilate, there's no energy liberated so the energy of a photon must be as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next: if energy equals mass, then mass similarly must be a quantity which is neither positive nor negative or both. For details see topic 1328 or www.quantumgravity.nl

Anton

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Experiments show that when two photons annihilate, there's no energy liberated so the energy of a photon must be as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next: if energy equals mass, then mass similarly must be a quantity which is neither positive nor negative or both. For details see topic 1328 or www.quantumgravity.nl

Anton

report post as inappropriate

Dear Anton,

Thank you very much!

=======

Experiments show that when two photons annihilate, there's no energy liberated so the energy of a photon must be as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next

=======

A photon could produce a pair of particles. However, no energy?, no products? Hmm,

What kind of experiments shows the result shown above?

Thank you very much!

=======

Experiments show that when two photons annihilate, there's no energy liberated so the energy of a photon must be as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next

=======

A photon could produce a pair of particles. However, no energy?, no products? Hmm,

What kind of experiments shows the result shown above?

Hyoyoung,

Well, you sure must know that two identical photons arriving in counter phase at the same point in space and time annihilate each other without liberating any energy?

The uncertainty principle is thought to mean that virtual particles continuously pop up out of nothing to disappear after a time inversely proportional to their energy. This energy is supposed to be borrowed from the vacuum, as if conservation laws may be violated for a shorter time as the violation is more serious. Because we assume that particle properties (including their energy) only are the cause, the source of interactions and forces, we assume that particles, virtual or real, exist even if they wouldn't interact at all, as if their existence is a given, a state rather than an activity.

However, if we live in a self-creating universe where particles have to create themselves, each other, then particles, particle properties must be as much the product as the source of their interactions, of the force between them. If in such universe particles only exist to each other if and as far as they interact and as long as they do, and to interact is to exchange energy, then virtual particles don't borrow their energy from the vacuum, but borrow and lend energy from and to each other, so they pop up with an opposite energy sign.

In this universe real particles are virtual particles which manage to pop up again and again after every disappearance, borrowing and lending each other the energy to exist, the sign of their energy alternating as they do, which explains their wave character. So if particles by continuously exchanging energy express and at the same time preserve each other's mass, if they owe their energy to all particles within their interaction horizon, then the annihilation (or creation) of two identical massive particles (identical but for their energy sign), obviously affects the energy of all other particles –which is observed as the particles emitting photons as they annihilate each other, or the creation of a particle-antiparticle pair out of energy.

The fact that a frequency always is a positive number doesn't mean that energy is a positive quantity: energy is a quantity which is greater as its rate of change (dE/dt) is greater, the frequency particles oscillate at, alternate their energy sign, so it is as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next.

Anton

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Well, you sure must know that two identical photons arriving in counter phase at the same point in space and time annihilate each other without liberating any energy?

The uncertainty principle is thought to mean that virtual particles continuously pop up out of nothing to disappear after a time inversely proportional to their energy. This energy is supposed to be borrowed from the vacuum, as if conservation laws may be violated for a shorter time as the violation is more serious. Because we assume that particle properties (including their energy) only are the cause, the source of interactions and forces, we assume that particles, virtual or real, exist even if they wouldn't interact at all, as if their existence is a given, a state rather than an activity.

However, if we live in a self-creating universe where particles have to create themselves, each other, then particles, particle properties must be as much the product as the source of their interactions, of the force between them. If in such universe particles only exist to each other if and as far as they interact and as long as they do, and to interact is to exchange energy, then virtual particles don't borrow their energy from the vacuum, but borrow and lend energy from and to each other, so they pop up with an opposite energy sign.

In this universe real particles are virtual particles which manage to pop up again and again after every disappearance, borrowing and lending each other the energy to exist, the sign of their energy alternating as they do, which explains their wave character. So if particles by continuously exchanging energy express and at the same time preserve each other's mass, if they owe their energy to all particles within their interaction horizon, then the annihilation (or creation) of two identical massive particles (identical but for their energy sign), obviously affects the energy of all other particles –which is observed as the particles emitting photons as they annihilate each other, or the creation of a particle-antiparticle pair out of energy.

The fact that a frequency always is a positive number doesn't mean that energy is a positive quantity: energy is a quantity which is greater as its rate of change (dE/dt) is greater, the frequency particles oscillate at, alternate their energy sign, so it is as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next.

Anton

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Dear Anton,

I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English.

I have trust in mass-energy equivalence, and I know that virtual particle can have energy and momentum. In addition, I know that virtual particle can be converted into real particle which has mass.

Therefore, it's hard for me to agree with your viewpoint (if energy equals mass, then mass similarly must be a quantity which is neither positive nor negative or both.).

Have a nice day!

--- Hyoyoung Choi

I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English.

I have trust in mass-energy equivalence, and I know that virtual particle can have energy and momentum. In addition, I know that virtual particle can be converted into real particle which has mass.

Therefore, it's hard for me to agree with your viewpoint (if energy equals mass, then mass similarly must be a quantity which is neither positive nor negative or both.).

Have a nice day!

--- Hyoyoung Choi

Hyoyoung,

Thanks for the nice you tube link, even though it shows that nobody has a clear notion of what energy is.

On my site, www.quantumgravity.nl, I argue that energy is a quantity which is as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next, which is why particles have a wave character.

The faster a particle alternates its energy sign, the greater its rate of change is (dE/dt or dE/dx), the higher its energy is, so it is a quantity which is neither positive or negative or both, its sign depending on the distance and/or time it is observed at.

That this frequency is a positive number does not mean that the quantity it quantifies is a positive quantity.

If you really believe that when two identical photons annihilate there is energy liberated, then you should ask your university tuition fees back.

Anton

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Thanks for the nice you tube link, even though it shows that nobody has a clear notion of what energy is.

On my site, www.quantumgravity.nl, I argue that energy is a quantity which is as positive in one phase as it is negative in the next, which is why particles have a wave character.

The faster a particle alternates its energy sign, the greater its rate of change is (dE/dt or dE/dx), the higher its energy is, so it is a quantity which is neither positive or negative or both, its sign depending on the distance and/or time it is observed at.

That this frequency is a positive number does not mean that the quantity it quantifies is a positive quantity.

If you really believe that when two identical photons annihilate there is energy liberated, then you should ask your university tuition fees back.

Anton

report post as inappropriate

I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English.

Below explanation is answer for Marcoen's questions. Please refer to below answer.

----------

Question1: For example, if one would apply contact forces to a body with negative inertial mass (assuming there is such a thing in a world where also positive inertial mass exists). If I would push such a body away from me, it would...

view entire post

Below explanation is answer for Marcoen's questions. Please refer to below answer.

----------

Question1: For example, if one would apply contact forces to a body with negative inertial mass (assuming there is such a thing in a world where also positive inertial mass exists). If I would push such a body away from me, it would...

view entire post

----------

Question4 : how can we in principle detect a particle with negative inertial mass? In other words: how can we prove its existence?

----------

1. Theoretical calculation

After making new Friedmann eq., on the assumption that negative mass and positive mass coexist, we have to explain dark matters and dark energy using it, predict new phenomena and compare them with one another.

Dark matter and dark energy come from one origin!

"Pair creation model of negative mass(energy) and positive mass(energy)" insists that dark matter is not different from dark energy each other, dark matter is the effect of centripetal force by negative mass out of galaxy, and dark energy is that positive gravitational potential term in total potential energy.

"Pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass" insists that dark energy is a gravitational potential energy(with positive value) between negative mass and positive mass.

As a matter of fact, through numerical calculation using a computer, the distribution having a similar value to the predicted rate of WMAP was revealed.( Refer to 6~7P)

We get a result at almost zero energy state.

(Zero rest mass energy: |m_positive| = |-m_negative|)

Matter (U_posiposi) : -83.2 (Ratio:1)

Dark Matter (U_neganega) : -459.6 (Ratio:5.52)

Dark Energy (U_negaposi) : 1286.9 (Ratio : 15.46)

2. Computer simulation

1) Big bang simulation

We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level.

As a result, we could verify that "pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass" explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

This simulation is showing incredible results.

It not only explains the total energy of the universe, flatness, and the essence (Total zero energy, pair creation of negative energy and positive energy) of the process of birth of the universe, but it explains inflation, decelerating expansion in the early stage, accelerating expansion(dark energy) in the late stage, and dark matter through the only term, negative energy. Moreover, this negative energy is one that is essentially required by the law of energy conservation.

- The Change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe :

http://vixra.org/abs/1110.0019

- Dark energy - Accelerating expansion of distant galaxy due to negative mass :

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71nMvwUhHwE

- Inflation, accelerating expansion with pair creation of negative and positive mass :

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRUqQM2FfNU

Therefore, a larger-scale, precise experiment is needed.

2) Bullet cluster simulation

Have a nice day!

---Hyoyoung Choi

Question4 : how can we in principle detect a particle with negative inertial mass? In other words: how can we prove its existence?

----------

1. Theoretical calculation

After making new Friedmann eq., on the assumption that negative mass and positive mass coexist, we have to explain dark matters and dark energy using it, predict new phenomena and compare them with one another.

Dark matter and dark energy come from one origin!

"Pair creation model of negative mass(energy) and positive mass(energy)" insists that dark matter is not different from dark energy each other, dark matter is the effect of centripetal force by negative mass out of galaxy, and dark energy is that positive gravitational potential term in total potential energy.

"Pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass" insists that dark energy is a gravitational potential energy(with positive value) between negative mass and positive mass.

As a matter of fact, through numerical calculation using a computer, the distribution having a similar value to the predicted rate of WMAP was revealed.( Refer to 6~7P)

We get a result at almost zero energy state.

(Zero rest mass energy: |m_positive| = |-m_negative|)

Matter (U_posiposi) : -83.2 (Ratio:1)

Dark Matter (U_neganega) : -459.6 (Ratio:5.52)

Dark Energy (U_negaposi) : 1286.9 (Ratio : 15.46)

2. Computer simulation

1) Big bang simulation

We set up each model from the birth of universe to the present, and calculated GPE using computer simulation in each level.

As a result, we could verify that "pair creation model of negative mass and positive mass" explains inflation of the early universe and decelerating expansion, and present accelerating expansion in time series.

This simulation is showing incredible results.

It not only explains the total energy of the universe, flatness, and the essence (Total zero energy, pair creation of negative energy and positive energy) of the process of birth of the universe, but it explains inflation, decelerating expansion in the early stage, accelerating expansion(dark energy) in the late stage, and dark matter through the only term, negative energy. Moreover, this negative energy is one that is essentially required by the law of energy conservation.

- The Change of Gravitational Potential Energy and Dark Energy in the Zero Energy Universe :

http://vixra.org/abs/1110.0019

- Dark energy - Accelerating expansion of distant galaxy due to negative mass :

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71nMvwUhHwE

- Inflation, accelerating expansion with pair creation of negative and positive mass :

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRUqQM2FfNU

Therefore, a larger-scale, precise experiment is needed.

2) Bullet cluster simulation

Have a nice day!

---Hyoyoung Choi

Hi Hyoyoung!

Great to see you here! I had the negative mass interpretation thread on BAUT forum where I found your videos originally. Very glad to see you have posted an essay here. I am still figuring out the best way to present my own ideas, which are closely linked to your own.

Here is a simple proof against General Relativity (and is an interpretation of your negative mass and...

view entire post

Great to see you here! I had the negative mass interpretation thread on BAUT forum where I found your videos originally. Very glad to see you have posted an essay here. I am still figuring out the best way to present my own ideas, which are closely linked to your own.

Here is a simple proof against General Relativity (and is an interpretation of your negative mass and...

view entire post

report post as inappropriate

For the observation or evidence of negative mass(energy)

In 1998, an observation by both the HSS team and SCP team obtained a negative mass density from inspected field equations over 70years.(field eq. has a Lamda=0)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Lamda=0, Omega_M= - 0.4(±0.1)

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 refer to 7P

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Lamda=0, Omega_M = - 0.38(±0.22)

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 refer to 14P

However, the two teams which judged that negative mass and negative energy level could not exist in our universe based on "the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity" and they instead revised the field equation by inserting the cosmological constant.

We must to know that not the equation has disposed the value, but our thought disposed the value.

Moreover, we considered vacuum energy as the source of cosmological constant Lamda, but the current result of calculation shows 10^{120}, which is unprecedented even in the history of Physics.

However, if "the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity" does not occur, and thus negative and positive mass can coexist, what would happen?

It is well known that a cosmological constant can respond to the negative mass density.

p_{eff} = -Lamda/4piG

Lamda is positive, so p_{eff} is negative.

==================

Have a Nice day!

--- Hyoyoung Choi

In 1998, an observation by both the HSS team and SCP team obtained a negative mass density from inspected field equations over 70years.(field eq. has a Lamda=0)

SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : If Lamda=0, Omega_M= - 0.4(±0.1)

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 refer to 7P

HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : If Lamda=0, Omega_M = - 0.38(±0.22)

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 refer to 14P

However, the two teams which judged that negative mass and negative energy level could not exist in our universe based on "the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity" and they instead revised the field equation by inserting the cosmological constant.

We must to know that not the equation has disposed the value, but our thought disposed the value.

Moreover, we considered vacuum energy as the source of cosmological constant Lamda, but the current result of calculation shows 10

However, if "the problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity" does not occur, and thus negative and positive mass can coexist, what would happen?

It is well known that a cosmological constant can respond to the negative mass density.

p

Lamda is positive, so p

==================

Have a Nice day!

--- Hyoyoung Choi

Dear Choi,

I like your division to negative and positive part.

I thinking about it in my two essay

http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/946

http://fqx

i.org/community/forum/topic/1413

Don't worry about broken English.....

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I like your division to negative and positive part.

I thinking about it in my two essay

http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/946

http://fqx

i.org/community/forum/topic/1413

Don't worry about broken English.....

report post as inappropriate

Dear Hyoyoung,

This is a good idea you have. Who knows if it will turn out to be right, but it is clear, based on a simple motivating principle, and has a lot of explanatory potential. I have a couple of questions.

1. Would you expect particles of negative mass to interact with particles of positive mass nongravitationally? The reason I ask is because I am trying to think of how one might try to observe such a thing in the laboratory.

2. A similar "gravitational segregation" argument has been used before to try to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the observable universe. (I mention this briefly in my essay here On the Foundational Assumptions of Modern Physics.) The idea is based on the fact that the nature of the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter particles has never been conclusively established since gravity is so weak, and some people have speculated that antimatter itself may have an anti-gravity effect. Do you think it's possible that the negative-mass particles you are proposing might be ordinary antimatter?

Take care,

Ben Dribus

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This is a good idea you have. Who knows if it will turn out to be right, but it is clear, based on a simple motivating principle, and has a lot of explanatory potential. I have a couple of questions.

1. Would you expect particles of negative mass to interact with particles of positive mass nongravitationally? The reason I ask is because I am trying to think of how one might try to observe such a thing in the laboratory.

2. A similar "gravitational segregation" argument has been used before to try to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the observable universe. (I mention this briefly in my essay here On the Foundational Assumptions of Modern Physics.) The idea is based on the fact that the nature of the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter particles has never been conclusively established since gravity is so weak, and some people have speculated that antimatter itself may have an anti-gravity effect. Do you think it's possible that the negative-mass particles you are proposing might be ordinary antimatter?

Take care,

Ben Dribus

report post as inappropriate

Dear Ben Dribus,

I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English. I am not sure that below thought be helpful to you.

We have to open up a lot of possibilities about negative mass(energy).

1. Negative mass hard to form the structure greater than the atom.

As examined the equation of motion for negative mass, it is marked in form of F = -ma(m > 0), when attraction is...

view entire post

I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English. I am not sure that below thought be helpful to you.

We have to open up a lot of possibilities about negative mass(energy).

1. Negative mass hard to form the structure greater than the atom.

As examined the equation of motion for negative mass, it is marked in form of F = -ma(m > 0), when attraction is...

view entire post

======

2. A similar "gravitational segregation" argument has been used before to try to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the observable universe. (I mention this briefly in my essay here On the Foundational Assumptions of Modern Physics.) ~

======

I am glad to see your essay and greatly enjoyed reading your essay

There are two ways on antigravitation....

view entire post

2. A similar "gravitational segregation" argument has been used before to try to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the observable universe. (I mention this briefly in my essay here On the Foundational Assumptions of Modern Physics.) ~

======

I am glad to see your essay and greatly enjoyed reading your essay

There are two ways on antigravitation....

view entire post

Hyoyoung,

Thanks for the detailed reply! In particular, I'm glad you raised the point that inertial mass could be either negative or positive in this context. I hadn't even considered the possibility of negative inertial mass. Take care,

Ben

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Thanks for the detailed reply! In particular, I'm glad you raised the point that inertial mass could be either negative or positive in this context. I hadn't even considered the possibility of negative inertial mass. Take care,

Ben

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Dear Hyoyoung Choi

Very interesting to see your essay.

Perhaps all of us are convinced that: the choice of yourself is right!That of course is reasonable.

So may be we should work together to let's the consider clearly defined for the basis foundations theoretical as the most challenging with intellectual of all of us.

Why we do not try to start with a real challenge is very close and are the focus of interest of the human science: it is a matter of mass and grain Higg boson of the standard model.

Knowledge and belief reasoning of you will to express an opinion on this matter:

You have think that: the Mass is the expression of the impact force to material - so no impact force, we do not feel the Higg boson - similar to the case of no weight outside the Earth's atmosphere.

Does there need to be a particle with mass for everything have volume? If so, then why the mass of everything change when moving from the Earth to the Moon? Higg boson is lighter by the Moon's gravity is weaker than of Earth?

The LHC particle accelerator used to "Smashed" until "Ejected" Higg boson, but why only when the "Smashed" can see it,and when off then not see it ?

Can be "locked" Higg particles? so when "released" if we do not force to it by any the Force, how to know that it is "out" or not?

You are should be boldly to give a definition of weight that you think is right for us to enjoy, or oppose my opinion.

Because in the process of research, the value of "failure" or "success" is the similar with science. The purpose of a correct theory be must is without any a wrong point ?

Glad to see from you comments soon,because still have too many of the same problems.

Regards !

Hải.Caohoàng of THE INCORRECT ASSUMPTIONS AND A CORRECT THEORY

August 23, 2012 - 11:51 GMT on this essay contest.

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Very interesting to see your essay.

Perhaps all of us are convinced that: the choice of yourself is right!That of course is reasonable.

So may be we should work together to let's the consider clearly defined for the basis foundations theoretical as the most challenging with intellectual of all of us.

Why we do not try to start with a real challenge is very close and are the focus of interest of the human science: it is a matter of mass and grain Higg boson of the standard model.

Knowledge and belief reasoning of you will to express an opinion on this matter:

You have think that: the Mass is the expression of the impact force to material - so no impact force, we do not feel the Higg boson - similar to the case of no weight outside the Earth's atmosphere.

Does there need to be a particle with mass for everything have volume? If so, then why the mass of everything change when moving from the Earth to the Moon? Higg boson is lighter by the Moon's gravity is weaker than of Earth?

The LHC particle accelerator used to "Smashed" until "Ejected" Higg boson, but why only when the "Smashed" can see it,and when off then not see it ?

Can be "locked" Higg particles? so when "released" if we do not force to it by any the Force, how to know that it is "out" or not?

You are should be boldly to give a definition of weight that you think is right for us to enjoy, or oppose my opinion.

Because in the process of research, the value of "failure" or "success" is the similar with science. The purpose of a correct theory be must is without any a wrong point ?

Glad to see from you comments soon,because still have too many of the same problems.

Regards !

Hải.Caohoàng of THE INCORRECT ASSUMPTIONS AND A CORRECT THEORY

August 23, 2012 - 11:51 GMT on this essay contest.

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Dear Hyoyoung,

The force in the second Newton law is where mass of a body m > 0, a is acceleration of the mass. This force is acting to mass m from the source of force. According to third Newton law there is the force of inertia which is acting to the source of force. The reason for the force of inertia is action of fluxes of gravitons to the mass substance during of acceleration of the mass. We see that the force of inertia and the acceleration are opposite. Then we have where is the negative mass of the body. So negative mass is a property of inertial forces.

Sergey Fedosin

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The force in the second Newton law is where mass of a body m > 0, a is acceleration of the mass. This force is acting to mass m from the source of force. According to third Newton law there is the force of inertia which is acting to the source of force. The reason for the force of inertia is action of fluxes of gravitons to the mass substance during of acceleration of the mass. We see that the force of inertia and the acceleration are opposite. Then we have where is the negative mass of the body. So negative mass is a property of inertial forces.

Sergey Fedosin

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After studying about 250 essays in this contest, I realize now, how can I assess the level of each submitted work. Accordingly, I rated some essays, including yours.

Cood luck.

Sergey Fedosin

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Cood luck.

Sergey Fedosin

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If you do not understand why your rating dropped down. As I found ratings in the contest are calculated in the next way. Suppose your rating is and was the quantity of people which gave you ratings. Then you have of points. After it anyone give you of points so you have of points and is the common quantity of the people which gave you ratings. At the same time you will have of points. From here, if you want to be R2 > R1 there must be: or or In other words if you want to increase rating of anyone you must give him more points then the participant`s rating was at the moment you rated him. From here it is seen that in the contest are special rules for ratings. And from here there are misunderstanding of some participants what is happened with their ratings. Moreover since community ratings are hided some participants do not sure how increase ratings of others and gives them maximum 10 points. But in the case the scale from 1 to 10 of points do not work, and some essays are overestimated and some essays are drop down. In my opinion it is a bad problem with this Contest rating process. I hope the FQXI community will change the rating process.

Sergey Fedosin

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Sergey Fedosin

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In the essay by Choi I am finding some very interesting and possibly important points. But one has to bear in mind that negative energies are usually considered as unphysical. An interaction between positive energy and negative energy states can make transitions between those states, so that positive energies increase to plus infinity, and negative energy fall to minus infinity, while the system's...

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The links that stay in my previous post do not work properly.

After having read the link help page more carefully, I am trying to insert the links again. Hopefully, the following links are correct:

My talk at the IARD2012 conference in Florence, Italy:

www-f1.ijs.si/~pavsic/IARD2012.pdf

Paper "Quantum Field Theories in Spaces with Neutral Signature":

arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1210.6820

Matej Pavsic

www-f1.ijs.si/~pavsic

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After having read the link help page more carefully, I am trying to insert the links again. Hopefully, the following links are correct:

My talk at the IARD2012 conference in Florence, Italy:

www-f1.ijs.si/~pavsic/IARD2012.pdf

Paper "Quantum Field Theories in Spaces with Neutral Signature":

arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1210.6820

Matej Pavsic

www-f1.ijs.si/~pavsic

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New version : Is the State of Low Energy Stable? Negative Mass and Negative Energy

http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0035

http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0035

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