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The Math of Consciousness: Q&A with Kobi Kremnitzer
A meditating mathematician is developing a theory of conscious experience to help understand the boundary between the quantum and classical world.

Can We Feel What It’s Like to Be Quantum?
Underground experiments in the heart of the Italian mountains are testing the links between consciousness and collapse theories of quantum physics.

The Thermodynamic Limits of Intelligence: Q&A with David Wolpert
Calculating the energy needed to acquire and compute information could help explain the (in)efficiency of human brains and guide the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.

Gambling Against the Second Law
Using precision thermometry to make mini heat engines, that might, momentarily, bust through the thermodynamic limit.

Mind and Machine: What Does It Mean to Be Sentient?
Using neural networks to test definitions of 'autonomy.'

May 20, 2022

Is the "Fine-Tuned Universe" an Illusion?
New FQXi report re-assesses claims that the cosmos is precisely tuned to foster life, challenging popular arguments for a multiverse.
by Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi
February 7, 2022
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The Fine-Tuned Universe
Why is our cosmos bio-friendly?
Credit: Bruce Rolff, Shutterstock
For decades physicists have been perplexed about why our cosmos appears to have been precisely tuned to foster intelligent life. It is widely thought that if the values of certain physical parameters, such as  the masses of elementary particles, were tweaked, even slightly, it would have prevented the formation of the components necessary for life in the universe—including planets, stars, and galaxies. But recent studies, detailed in a new report by the Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, propose that intelligent life could have evolved under drastically different physical conditions. The claim undermines a major argument in support of the existence of a multiverse of parallel universes.

"The tuning required for some of these physical parameters to give rise to life turns out to be less precise than the tuning needed to capture a station on your radio, according to new calculations," says Miriam Frankel, who authored the FQXi report, which was produced with support from the John Templeton Foundation. "If true, the apparent fine tuning may be an illusion," Frankel adds.

Over the last few decades, the subject of fine tuning has attracted some of the sharpest minds in physics. By probing the universe’s physical laws and precisely pinning down the values of physical constants—such as the masses of elementary particles and the strengths of forces—physicists have discovered that surprisingly small variations in these values would have rendered the universe lifeless. This led to a puzzle: why are physical conditions seemingly tailored towards human existence?

Some physicists have explained away these serendipitous conditions by invoking multiverse theory, which states that there are an infinite number of parallel universes, each with different physical parameters. Within the multiverse framework, it is not so surprising that humans should have evolved in one of the parallel realities in which conditions happen to be habitable for us. So the fine-tuning puzzle evaporates.

The Inflationary Multiverse
A multiverse of multiple parallel universes, each with
different physical parameters, is predicted to exist by
some cosmological inflation models, combined with string
theory. The multiverse provides one explanation to
the fine-tuning problem of why our cosmos
seems to have just the right parameters to
harbor intelligent life.

Credit: Large image can be downloaded here and is
free to use if credited correctly: "Created by
Maayan Harel for the Foundational Questions Institute,
FQXi. © FQXi"
But other scientists have remained skeptical that our universe is fine tuned for life, at all. In FQXi’s in-depth report, Frankel explores the complex history of research on fine tuning, including potential explanations for it—such as those derived from string theory and the multiverse framework—and assesses proposals for experimentally testing these explanations directly and indirectly. The report then outlines arguments that fine tuning is an illusion, noting that life may take a very different form than naively imagined, and that if multiple physical parameters are considered to vary simultaneously, it could alleviate any apparent fine-tuning problems. This suggests that the universe may not be so finely tuned; it may be able to produce life under a much wider range of circumstances than first thought.

Fred Adams, an astrophysicist and expert on fine tuning at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, says: "The developments outlined in this report emphasize that the fine-tuning problem is more nuanced than has been discussed previously, with wider allowed ranges for the relevant physical parameters." For instance, it has often been stated that even subtly changing the balance of the forces that govern the atomic nucleus, or the values of fundamental constants of nature, could affect the formation of carbon in stars—needed for the development of organic life—or affect the lifetimes of stars, thus preventing them from providing enough energy for habitable planets to exist. But the equations of stellar structure may have more solutions than most people realize. "Stars can continue to operate with substantial variations in the fundamental constants," says Adams, whose work is featured in the report. "Moreover, if a particular astrophysical process becomes inoperable, then (often) another process can take its place to help provide energy for the universe."

"Claims of fine tuning have long split opinions," says FQXi’s scientific program manager David Sloan, a physicist at the University of Lancaster, UK, who edited the book Fine-Tuning in the Physical Universe, published by Cambridge University Press in 2020. "When parameters required for life seem to turn up in suspiciously narrow regions we seek explanations of this as either coincidence or cosmic conspiracy. Finding that these regions could be broader, or that other life-permitting regions exist, weakens the need for such explanations. It could be that there is no conspiracy at all," says Sloan, whose research is also featured in the report.

FQXi’s Fine Tuning report is part of the latest in a series exploring the frontiers of physics research, produced in partnership with the John Templeton Foundation. Other reports in the series tackle how our universe came into existencewhether time is real, and the origin of space from quantum entanglement.

Read the full Fine-Tuning report:

All FQXi reports are available on FQXi’s News, Reports and Publications page, where a large version of the inflationary multiverse graphic can also be downloaded.


The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of science, particularly new frontiers in physics and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources. Visit for more information.


The John Templeton Foundation supports research and catalyzes conversations that inspire people with awe and wonder. With an endowment of US$3.8 billion and annual giving of approximately $140 million, the Foundation ranks among the 25 largest grantmaking foundations in the United States and its philanthropic activities have engaged all major faith traditions and extended to more than 57 countries around the world. Visit for more information.

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Kavita Rajanna
Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi

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University of Michigan

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