RECENT ARTICLES

Why do we remember the past and not the future? Untangling the connections between cause and effect, choice, and entropy.

Philosophers, physicists and neuroscientists discuss how our sense of time’s flow might arise through our interactions with external stimuli—despite suggestions from Einstein's relativity that our perception of the passage of time is an illusion.

A devilish new framework of thermodynamics that focuses on how we observe information could help illuminate our understanding of probability and rewrite quantum theory.

An unusual approach to unifying the laws of physics could solve Hawking's black-hole information paradox—and its predicted gravitational "memory effect" could be picked up by LIGO.

Objective reality, and the laws of physics themselves, emerge from our observations, according to a new framework that turns what we think of as fundamental on its head.

FQXI ARTICLE

September 21, 2019

The Patchwork Multiverse

Cutting spacetime into patches could help explain the size of the universe—and provide the first ”experimental” evidence that string theory is on the right track.

FQXi Awardees: Raphael Bousso

December 2, 2010

RAPHAEL BOUSSO

UC Berkeley

Which is just as well, for Bousso is trying to solve one of the biggest puzzles in the cosmos: Just why is the universe so large? Bousso’s quest has led him to consider a multitude of universes and, in particular, how the value of the cosmological constant—the intrinsic energy of the vacuum of spacetime—could vary across different universe patches. The answer, Bousso claims, is "the first example of an experimental success of string theory."

It makes sense to look for a connection between the cosmological constant and the size of the universe. Many physicists believe that vacuum energy is the mysterious "dark energy" that is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate. To fit with the cosmos that we see around us, the value of the constant should be small. The trouble is that this is in violent disagreement with calculations of vacuum energy from quantum field theory, by some 120 orders of magnitude.

In 1997, Steven Weinberg, of the University of Texas, Austin, came up with the first realistic prediction for the value of the cosmological constant. Weinberg noted that there comes a time in the evolution of the universe when the cosmological constant—which repulses gravity and causes spacetime to expand faster and faster—becomes dominant. He realized that if the constant was much larger than 10

Underpinning the Universe

This allowed Weinberg to ask the question: What’s the most likely value of the cosmological constant that would be seen by observers in our universe? The answer: 10

As Weinberg himself noted, his arguments made sense only if there were many, many patches of spacetime, each with its own randomly-determined value of the cosmological constant. But in 1997, there wasn’t a theory that could generate different patches of spacetime, each with a different vacuum.

This is the first example

of an experimental

success of string theory.

of an experimental

success of string theory.

- Raphael Bousso

The physical realization of this ensemble is referred to as the multiverse. With this theoretical underpinning in place, Bousso and Polchinski asked the same question that Weinberg did: What would be the most likely value of the cosmological constant that would be seen by an observer? They were able to show that the landscape would have regions with a cosmological constant that tallied well with observations.

But soon it became clear that the analysis suffered from a profound problem: How do you calculate the number of observers in a seemingly infinite universe?

Bousso’s answer was to limit himself to thinking only about an imaginary observer who lives forever. Because of the finite speed of light, this observer can only see events within a certain region of their universe—their

"If the cosmological constant starts becoming important before the observers form, then there just won’t be very many observers opening their eyes in the region where you are allowed to count them," says Bousso.

Time of Life

Using the causal patch technique, Bousso found that the cosmological constant is related to the time at which observers inhabit any given universe. Plugging the age of our universe into his equations gave Bousso a universe that would be about 10

Is Evidence of Dark Energy Also Evidence of the Multiverse?

The distribution of galaxies in a universe without dark

energy (left) would differ from one in which

dark energy is significant (right).

Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

So, the origin of these numbers—why the cosmological constant is not smaller and why the universe is not bigger—has to do with the finiteness of the string landscape, explains Bousso.

"It actually explains the cosmological constant in a way that previous theoretical attempts have utterly failed," he says.

The challenge going forward is to get a better handle on the string landscape. For instance, in their latest paper, which was work done using an FQXi grant of over $60,000, Bousso and colleagues predict that the string landscape will have about 10

This explains the cosmological

constant in a way that

previous attempts have

utterly failed.

constant in a way that

previous attempts have

utterly failed.

- Raphael Bousso

Bousso has been successful in taking nebulous questions and coming up with something concrete, says Polchinski. "His conclusion is something that can eventually be refined into a sharp mathematical prediction."

Sharp predictions are exactly what string theory needs, to counter criticisms that the theory is too far removed from reality. But Bousso has long been convinced that he is on the right track. "I think the evidence is mounting that there really is a multiverse and that there all these vacua there," he says. "I don’t think we can claim victory yet, but there is really no other game in town."

Comment on this Article

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

function ValidatePostText_main () {
form = document.addPostForm_main;
var recaptcha = $("#g-recaptcha-response").val();
if (recaptcha === "") {
event.preventDefault();
alert("The reCaptcha Box below must be checked before you submit the form");
}
else if (form.postText_main.value == '') {
alert ("The post contains no text");
return false;
}
else {
return true;
}
}

**Your name:**
(optional)

Recent Comments

read all article comments

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

Please enter the text of your post, then click the "Submit New Post" button below. You may also optionally add file attachments below before submitting your edits.

HTML tags are not permitted in posts, and will automatically be stripped out. Links to other web sites are permitted. For instructions on how to add links, please read the link help page.

You may use superscript (10

^{100}) and subscript (A_{2}) using [sup]...[/sup] and [sub]...[/sub] tags.You may use bold (

**important**) and italics (*emphasize*) using [b]...[/b] and [i]...[/i] tags.You may also include LateX equations into your post.

Insert LaTeX Equation
[hide]

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

Attachments
[hide]

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

ANONYMOUS wrote on November 9, 2013

Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Has Betrayed The Search For Scientific Truth] and even more spot-on Unzicker-Jones[Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Their Credibility] critiques shame physics’ shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi “show-biz” trending viral exacerbated by online social networks veritable diarrhea via proliferation of uncritical “pop-sci” science-writers where all is spectacle...

Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Has Betrayed The Search For Scientific Truth] and even more spot-on Unzicker-Jones[Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Their Credibility] critiques shame physics’ shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi “show-biz” trending viral exacerbated by online social networks veritable diarrhea via proliferation of uncritical “pop-sci” science-writers where all is spectacle...

JOE BLOGS wrote on August 11, 2011

Please reply to my post Moldinows book Page 160.

"this is because according to the laws of gravity it is only in three dimensions that stable eliptical orbits are possible.Circular orbits are possible in other dimensions but those as Newton feared are unstable I any but three dimesions even a small disturbance.

I invite phsyics teachers to comment on my thoery of everthing for time.

And time is only one variable of the thoery..............

You can include space as...

Please reply to my post Moldinows book Page 160.

"this is because according to the laws of gravity it is only in three dimensions that stable eliptical orbits are possible.Circular orbits are possible in other dimensions but those as Newton feared are unstable I any but three dimesions even a small disturbance.

I invite phsyics teachers to comment on my thoery of everthing for time.

And time is only one variable of the thoery..............

You can include space as...

JOE BLOGS wrote on August 11, 2011

Conver a 12 dimensional circular space time orbit into 3 dimensions plus one of time.

WIth the formula 360/60= 6 minutes/year difference from sidereal time.

Convert E=MC^2 for an eliptical orbit of earth where C^2 is the space time interval.

To a circular orbit in 12 dimensions including two of time.

Man seeks to control what he does not understand if time is understood maybe he can control it.

But I doubt it 12 is right for time according to Jesus so 12...

Conver a 12 dimensional circular space time orbit into 3 dimensions plus one of time.

WIth the formula 360/60= 6 minutes/year difference from sidereal time.

Convert E=MC^2 for an eliptical orbit of earth where C^2 is the space time interval.

To a circular orbit in 12 dimensions including two of time.

Man seeks to control what he does not understand if time is understood maybe he can control it.

But I doubt it 12 is right for time according to Jesus so 12...

read all article comments