RECENT ARTICLES

Why do we remember the past and not the future? Untangling the connections between cause and effect, choice, and entropy.

Philosophers, physicists and neuroscientists discuss how our sense of time’s flow might arise through our interactions with external stimuli—despite suggestions from Einstein's relativity that our perception of the passage of time is an illusion.

A devilish new framework of thermodynamics that focuses on how we observe information could help illuminate our understanding of probability and rewrite quantum theory.

An unusual approach to unifying the laws of physics could solve Hawking's black-hole information paradox—and its predicted gravitational "memory effect" could be picked up by LIGO.

Objective reality, and the laws of physics themselves, emerge from our observations, according to a new framework that turns what we think of as fundamental on its head.

FQXI ARTICLE

August 25, 2019

Taming Infinity

General relativity and quantum mechanics could be perfectly compatible—as long as you know how to handle infinity, that is.

FQXi Awardees: Richard Woodard

January 10, 2010

EXPLORING THE QUANTUM GRAVITY DESERT

Richard Woodard (and camel)

Woodard clearly remembers the time he fell in love with particle physics. It was fall, 1977. A self-confessed "hot-shot" who had tackled graduate-level quantum mechanics with ease as an undergraduate at Case Western Reserve University, Ohio, Woodard arrived at Harvard University for graduate studies with thoughts that quantum mechanics was going to get tougher and more complex. And he was ready for it.

But then he took his first course in quantum field theory, being taught by Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg. "It was one of the seminal experiences of my life," says Woodard. "The idea that you could write down the DNA of the universe in just a few statements—a brush stroke on a piece of paper—was just awesome. I recall lying in my bed in my dormitory room, just staring up at the ceiling to look at something blank, because I was overwhelmed by the power of the ideas that were being put into my mind by those lectures."

There’s a saying at Harvard that you don’t really understand quantum field theory until you have taken it three times. So, Woodard found himself studying it once more, under Sidney Coleman. Woodard was learning from men who had been instrumental in creating the standard model of particle physics, which seemed to be perfect, explaining everything that was observed in the lab.

Well, almost perfect.

Quantum Mountains

"That left one big unsolved problem, and that was gravity," says Woodard, now at the University of Florida, Gainsville. Every young theorist wanted to tackle quantum gravity—meshing quantum mechanics with general relativity—but the professors at Harvard heavily discouraged their students from going down that perilous route. But Woodard was sold on it. "We theorists are like mountain climbers. We see a tall mountain, and we just got to climb it."

I was overwhelmed by

the power of ideas

that were being put

into my mind.

the power of ideas

that were being put

into my mind.

- Richard Woodard

While quantum field theory does a fantastic job of describing electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces, it doesn’t work for Einstein’s theory of gravity. No matter how hard you work at applying quantum field theory to gravity, you get the same, dramatically wrong, answer: infinity.

"If you take the theory seriously, it says that when I wave my arm, every being in the solar system gets fried by hard gravitational radiation. That’s obviously not true," says Woodard. "So, right now we just have nonsense."

Something is clearly going wrong—but where? Almost everyone agrees that quantum mechanics is not the culprit. Most particle theorists think that the problem lies with general relativity. But Woodard thinks they are in danger of throwing the baby out with the bathwater. He argues that just because the calculations don’t work, that doesn’t mean general relativity is wrong, or incompatible with quantum mechanics. And it doesn’t mean that we need to introduce string theory, loop quantum gravity, or any other exotic new physical theory. Instead, the blame could lie with the approximate techniques used to carry out quantum field theory calculations.

In an ideal world, physicists wouldn’t have to make approximations. But we don’t live in an ideal world. Anyone who has taken high-school physics will remember having to simplify complicated problems in order to have any chance of applying textbook equations—pretending that cars are perfect cuboids sliding along frictionless roads, say.

Sweeping Away Infinity

Similarly, physicists are often forced to make approximations as they try to solve equations that describe things that can be measured, such as the total energy of a quantum system. Except for the simplest systems, these equations are impossible to solve exactly. That’s when physicists start approximating—using a technique known as

PERTURBING DEVELOPMENTS

Physicists make their best

guess when simulating

quantum systems on

computers. But is the guess

good enough for gravity?

This infinity issue isn’t confined to gravity. But for the other forces, physicists have clever ways to sweep these infinities under the carpet and recover meaningful answers. "We get a finite result that is in beautiful agreement with nature," says Woodard.

Unfortunately, these don’t work for gravity, so the calculations blow up in your face. "It is quite likely that perturbation theory is giving us misleading results," says Woodard.

It’s like figuring out

what is in a room

behind a locked

door. And we don’t

even know if there’s

a room there.

what is in a room

behind a locked

door. And we don’t

even know if there’s

a room there.

- Roberto Casadio

The first step for Woodard is to try and calculate the masses of fundamental particles, like electrons, using his alternative series expansion. In the 1960s,Richard Arnowitt, Stanley Deser and Charles Misner showed how to calculate the mass of a particle using classical general relativity. "I’m trying to extend that to quantum physics," says Woodard, who will be using his FQXi grant of over $37,000 towards this work.

Woodard is also helped by clues that any corrections to general relativity must either be tiny or else disguised as something that we don’t recognize as a quantum correction. That’s because we do not recognize any large quantum gravitational effects around us.

Light Reflections

One way to see such effects would be to examine the propagation of light. Imagine bouncing a beam of light off the surface of Alpha Centauri, the nearest star. We can calculate just how long the beam should take to come back to Earth. Assuming we had detectors good enough to measure the reflection, we could test our calculations. And all would be well if spacetime is classical. But in quantum gravity, spacetime is subject to fluctuations. "That signal would traverse the quantum geometry, which is itself fluctuating. Sometimes the fluctuation would be such as to cause that signal to go a little bit faster than in our average geometry," says Woodard. In that case, the reflected beam would arrive earlier than expected.

Of course, we’re a long way from testing anything like that right now. But whatever quantum gravitational effects there are, they are virtually undetectable in our current experiments, and that will influence the development of any alternative to conventional perturbation theory, says Woodard.

Another physicist who works on quantum gravity, Roberto Casadio of the University of Bologna, Italy, calls Woodard "a brilliant and extremely dedicated scientist." He admires the fact that Woodard doesn’t take the failure to apply quantum field theory to gravity using perturbation theory as a sign that we need any new theories of physics, "a common lore which has led to a (totally uncontrollable) amount of visionary ideas about quantum gravity."

Still, quantum gravity remains an enigma, thanks in part to the lack of experimental evidence for it. "It’s like figuring out what is in a room behind a locked door, and we do not even know if there is a room there," says Casadio. "Just because of this, any approach to quantum gravity remains an act of faith."

Comment on this Article

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

function ValidatePostText_main () {
form = document.addPostForm_main;
var recaptcha = $("#g-recaptcha-response").val();
if (recaptcha === "") {
event.preventDefault();
alert("The reCaptcha Box below must be checked before you submit the form");
}
else if (form.postText_main.value == '') {
alert ("The post contains no text");
return false;
}
else {
return true;
}
}

**Your name:**
(optional)

Recent Comments

read all article comments

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

Please enter the text of your post, then click the "Submit New Post" button below. You may also optionally add file attachments below before submitting your edits.

HTML tags are not permitted in posts, and will automatically be stripped out. Links to other web sites are permitted. For instructions on how to add links, please read the link help page.

You may use superscript (10

^{100}) and subscript (A_{2}) using [sup]...[/sup] and [sub]...[/sub] tags.You may use bold (

**important**) and italics (*emphasize*) using [b]...[/b] and [i]...[/i] tags.You may also include LateX equations into your post.

Insert LaTeX Equation
[hide]

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

Attachments
[hide]

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

STEVE DUFOURNY wrote on February 16, 2010

3D and a constant of evolution where the mass increases......the number of spheres is specific in the 2 senses, the same.

The gravity polarises the light .......in a finite system where the volume evolves.The rotations around the universal center take all its sense.

The gravity is like a modulator of evolution.

I d like insist on one thing, the "space time" is only understood near the walls, cosmologicals or quant.,like just a locality under parameters or a moment.In the...

3D and a constant of evolution where the mass increases......the number of spheres is specific in the 2 senses, the same.

The gravity polarises the light .......in a finite system where the volume evolves.The rotations around the universal center take all its sense.

The gravity is like a modulator of evolution.

I d like insist on one thing, the "space time" is only understood near the walls, cosmologicals or quant.,like just a locality under parameters or a moment.In the...

STEVE DUFOURNY wrote on February 16, 2010

Alleluia .

and EUREKA from BELGIUM .hihihihi

Alleluia .

and EUREKA from BELGIUM .hihihihi

STEVE JEFFREY wrote on February 16, 2010

THEORY TO UNITE QUANTUM GRAVITY WITH EINSTEIN THEORY.

The reason the two theories don't unite is time and space are two in quantum mechanics and one in Einsteins theory.

2/3 SPACE+ 2/3 SPACE+ 2/3 SPACE= 2 SPACE.+

2/3 TIME+ 2/3 TIME+ 2/3 TIME= 2 TIME.

2 SPACE+ 2 TIME= 4 SPACE/TIME/4= 1.

If we divide four equations by four we get four equations in one. Which is Einsteins one space/time.

So we can put quantum mechanics and Einsteins theory togther 12 12...

THEORY TO UNITE QUANTUM GRAVITY WITH EINSTEIN THEORY.

The reason the two theories don't unite is time and space are two in quantum mechanics and one in Einsteins theory.

2/3 SPACE+ 2/3 SPACE+ 2/3 SPACE= 2 SPACE.+

2/3 TIME+ 2/3 TIME+ 2/3 TIME= 2 TIME.

2 SPACE+ 2 TIME= 4 SPACE/TIME/4= 1.

If we divide four equations by four we get four equations in one. Which is Einsteins one space/time.

So we can put quantum mechanics and Einsteins theory togther 12 12...

read all article comments