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Mohammed Khalil: on 8/22/14 at 9:52am UTC, wrote Dear Vladimir, Many thanks for the congratulations. I really appreciate...

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Mohammed Khalil: on 6/3/14 at 12:52pm UTC, wrote Hi Janko, Thank you for your comment. I will check your essay as soon as...

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Chidi Idika: on 6/3/14 at 8:12am UTC, wrote Dear Mohammed, What I like about your essay is that it is well documented...


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FQXi FORUM
October 18, 2017

CATEGORY: How Should Humanity Steer the Future? Essay Contest (2014) [back]
TOPIC: Improving Science for a Better Future by Mohammed M. Khalil [refresh]
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Author Mohammed M. Khalil wrote on Apr. 22, 2014 @ 11:24 GMT
Essay Abstract

Science is the reason humanity reached this stage of progress, and science is humanity's guide to the future. However, to enable science to guide us to a better future, we need to improve the way we do science to accelerate the rate of scientific discovery and its applications. This is important to find urgent solutions to humanity's problems, improve humanity's conditions, and enhance our understanding of nature. In this essay, we seek to identify those aspects of science that need improvement, and discuss how to improve them.

Author Bio

Mohammed Khalil is an undergraduate junior student at Alexandria University, Egypt. His main interest is theoretical physics, especially cosmology. Last year, he took the GRE physics test and scored 990. He also published a paper in the journal ‘Advances in High Energy Physics’; it is available at http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/619498/.

Download Essay PDF File




Gbenga Michael Ogungbuyi wrote on Apr. 22, 2014 @ 21:11 GMT
Mohammed,

It is my great delight to see an undergraduate junior student coming from Africa taking part in this highly intellectual based competition. I am glad to be the first to rate you. Your essay is quite research oriented and wish you can increase your momentum because you are going places. There is a future for the Africans.

I will also employ you to read my article "STRIKING A BALANCE BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM" and leave a comment base on your observation including rating the essay. Hope to see more Africans in this competition

It is well with you and keep it up.

Gbenga

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Apr. 23, 2014 @ 11:26 GMT
Gbenga,

Thank you for your kind and encouraging comments, and for your rating.

I will read your essay, and tell you my opinion.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Georgina Woodward wrote on Apr. 23, 2014 @ 03:25 GMT
Hi Mohammed,

You have given a really thorough examination of the problems facing science and given very clear solutions. I found the discussion of the current problems with the quality control of published work eye opening. Also the bias introduced by not publishing negative results was a really interesting observation.I am quite staggered by the sheer number of papers published each year.

An interesting discussion of public education, good news too with the uptake of online university courses. You have given an optimistic view that science and technology will be able to solve future problems and you gave some very interesting examples. Relevant,informative and well written. Good luck,Georgina

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Apr. 23, 2014 @ 13:22 GMT
Hi Georgina,

Thank you so much for kind comments. I am glad you liked the essay.




Joe Fisher wrote on Apr. 23, 2014 @ 20:51 GMT
Dear Prospective Doctor Khalil,

Your essay was excellent. I do hope that it does well in the contest.

Regards,

Joe Fisher

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Apr. 28, 2014 @ 14:47 GMT
Thank you Joe. I wish you good luck in the contest.




Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Apr. 27, 2014 @ 01:52 GMT
Hello Mohammed,

I greatly enjoyed your essay and I agree with the premise that Science as we know it needs some repairs. Actually; I've been trying to highlight and address some of the same problems for several years now. I have attached the slides and proceedings paper for my FFP11 talk "Learning to Cooperate for Progress in Physics," which I think fills in some of the areas your paper does not discuss. You will find additional sources about this and other topics related to your essay in my own offering for this year's contest. You will also find Phil Gibbs' essay worthwhile to read, because he speaks at length about the peer-review story your essay touches on.

I wish you luck!

Regards,

Jonathan

attachments: 2_JDickauFFP11.pdf, Learning_to_Cooperate_for_Progress_in_Physics.pdf

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Apr. 28, 2014 @ 14:45 GMT
Thank you Jonathan. I read your essay and presentation, and I agree with you. Innovation is very important for humanity's progress, and what better way to encourage it than play. Also, thank you for mentioning Gibbs' essay, I'll read it soon.

Good luck for you.




Vladimir F. Tamari wrote on Apr. 27, 2014 @ 19:50 GMT
Dear Mohammad

Azeem! A fantastic essay! It is astonishing to see how an undergraduate has accumulated, digested and creatively presented so much knowledge and his own ideas about it in such a lucid manner. Brilliant.

Having said that I see that the enthusiasm of youth is matched by its idealism. Many of the suggestions you make are eminently practical and should be implemented. Yet...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Apr. 28, 2014 @ 15:12 GMT
Dear Vladimir,

Shukran! Thank you so much for your encouraging comment.

I agree that many of my suggestions are hard to achieve, but they are not impossible. Most of the issues raised in my essay are science related, and scientists are better at adapting to change. To fix science we need as many people as possible to believe in the need to do so, and discussions are a great place to...

view entire post




Eckard Blumschein replied on May. 3, 2014 @ 15:08 GMT
Hi Vladimir and Mohammed,

My dictionary says: "If someone revamps a system, group, or organization, they make changesto it in order to try and improve it and hide its faults; often used showing disapproval". I guess Vladimir didn't intend hiding faults.

Mohammed wrote: "we need as many people as possible". Hm.Aren't there already many unemployed people in particular in Muslim...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 4, 2014 @ 10:56 GMT
Hi Eckard,

Thank you for your comments.

By "we need as many people as possible", I meant that for an improvement to happen, people must first believe in the necessity of doing so, especially scientists, engineers, and policy makers. I don't understand what "unemployed people" have to do with this.

You are right that earth's resources are limited and cannot sustain 100...

view entire post





James Lee Hoover wrote on Apr. 30, 2014 @ 23:52 GMT
Mohammed,

Your solutions require openness and equal media access. I believe you correctly identify the shortcomings of the current system. Certainly science is the guide to the future and improvements are in order. My fear is that monolithic corporations with control over energy, investment, government and the media -- and increasingly what is researched in the academic world, has an agenda which does not include long-term solutions regarding climate change, alternative energy sources, and research on the foregoing problems. Technology and science discoveries have an emphasis on weaponry, fossil fuel discovery and pharmaceuticals in the US. It is hard to break the monopoly on resource use based on profit.

You do present aspects of science that need improvement, especially in open applications of technology, and we do need a common good solution. This I also discuss.

Jim

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 1, 2014 @ 13:40 GMT
Hi James,

Thank you for your comment. I agree with you; that's why I believe governments should fund innovation in those kinds of problems, not the private sector. For this to happen, the public must believe in the importance of those issues, and scientists have the responsibility of raising the public awareness of those problems and how to solve them.

Best regards,

Mohammed



James Lee Hoover replied on May. 31, 2014 @ 17:38 GMT
Mohammed,

Having had rating problems with my Firefox browser and with some 5 days remaining, I am revisiting essays I've read to see if rated. I find that I rated yours on 4/30.

I would like to see your comments on my essay: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2008

Jim

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Ajay Bhatla wrote on May. 1, 2014 @ 19:31 GMT
Hi Mohammed,

You wrote a fact-packed and easy to read essay. The F1000Research Journal sounds like a worthwhile idea. I will check it out.

Your comment on negative results made my day but from a different perspective than yours. For the past years, I have been working to identify how to naturally extract water vapor indigenously from the air we breathe anywhere in the world. I...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 1, 2014 @ 22:24 GMT
Thank you Ajay, your reply made my day. Extracting water vapor sounds like a great method to solve water shortage problems, but to use it widely, I think it needs a good renewable energy source.

I think that I addressed expanding the use of science, but yes I did focus more on adding to science. I believe new scientific innovations are needed to solve humanity's problems, and to provide better conditions for all people.

Thanks again,

Mohammed



Eckard Blumschein replied on May. 4, 2014 @ 09:09 GMT
Hi Ajay,

Waiting so far in vain for a reply by Mohammed, I read your idea. Yes, we say the devil is in the detail. In Europe we are familiar with acid rain. Recently I heard that multi-resistance is a growing problem in Calcutta. Too many people would cause huge unseen difficulties. What do you mean, how many people does the earth need?

Curious,

Eckard

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 4, 2014 @ 10:58 GMT
Hi Eckard,

I replied to your comment, sorry about the delay.




Cristinel Stoica wrote on May. 5, 2014 @ 19:35 GMT
Hi Mohammed,

Very nice essay, I enjoyed reading it. You are right about the publishing process, in particular regarding publishing negative reviews, confirming the results of research, peer review done more seriously (often reviewers don't give full consideration when accepting, but also when rejecting a paper, for being an alternative approach). You are also right with involving more the scientists, and especially with your views on access to education and empowering people to participate to global decisions. We can do better science, and we can raise awareness of the global problems by education.

Good luck with the contest, and with your research!

Cristi

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 5, 2014 @ 21:00 GMT
Hi Cristi,

Thank you for your kind and encouraging comment. I am glad that you enjoyed my essay, and that you agree with me.

Good luck to you too,

Mohammed




Robin Hanson wrote on May. 9, 2014 @ 18:26 GMT
You list some changes you would like to see in academic practices, but you don't integrate that into a theory of why the existing practices are a social equilibrium. So you don't have a plausible story about how things could be changed to make the practices you like also be a social equilibrium. These things aren't accidents, they are all the result of people pursuing their incentives in the context of particular institutions. You need to tell us how you plan to change things so that these new outcomes would result from people pursing their incentives in the context of particular changes.

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 9, 2014 @ 21:18 GMT
Robin,

Thank you for your comment.

In this essay I do not talk about improving academic practices, but how to improve the scientific process in order to accelerate the rate of scientific and technological advances.

Who said the current practices are a "social equilibrium"? According to Talcott Parsons, no real social system will reach a perfect equilibrium; to Parsons...

view entire post





Tihamer T. Toth-Fejel wrote on May. 11, 2014 @ 07:08 GMT
Dear Mohammed,

What a great essay! I wish I would have been able to write so intelligently when I was an undergrad. Anyone who quotes Hawkings, Von Neumann, and Drexler at the beginning of a paper is on the right track. Then again, Alexandria has been a center of learning for millenia, so you have a great tradition to uphold. :-)

Now for the critical comments: :-(

Science...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 11, 2014 @ 16:32 GMT
Dear Tihamer,

Thank you so much for your kind comments and useful criticism.

I agree that science is not the only steering mechanism, but I believe it had the biggest impact on our present progress. For example, the economy of many countries is primarily based on technology, including Japan. In this essay I didn't only discuss how to produce new scientific knowledge more...

view entire post





Steve Agnew wrote on May. 11, 2014 @ 16:33 GMT
Very nice essay and a future where science and technology have solutions for humanity is a very desirable one. But science and technology also may have possible futures that bring new problems for humanity as well, and you do not talk about those possible futures very much.

You mention science literacy as important for the public, but for most of humanity, science is simply a vague notion...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 11, 2014 @ 17:08 GMT
Hi Steve,

Thank you for your comments.

You are right that science and technology may bring new problems for humanity, but I would rather be optimistic and think that in the future humanity will be more responsible about how to use science.

I agree that to many people science is a mysterious thing, but that should change if more importance is to be given to science....

view entire post





Member Travis Ty Norsen wrote on May. 13, 2014 @ 18:14 GMT
Mohammed,

Thanks for your earlier comments on my essay, "Back to the Future". I finally found time to start reading some of the other contributions to the contest. I enjoyed your essay and agree with most of your suggestions. I couldn't help feeling, though, that it was a little difficult to keep them all in mind at the same time. I wonder if you perceive a common thread or theme running through all of the concrete proposals you make? Many of them pertain in some way to education or collaboration or cooperation, but I wondered how you would boil the list down to its "essence"...

Best,

Travis

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 14, 2014 @ 14:45 GMT
Travis,

Thank you for the comment. I agree that the essay discussed many topics, but they all are about how to increase the rate of scientific and technological advances in order to solve humanity's problems and reach a better future. Those topics can be classified as follows:

1) Basic themes of science and technology that are gaining more importance (interdisciplinarity - new...

view entire post





Member Rick Searle wrote on May. 14, 2014 @ 02:13 GMT
Fantastic essay! I may turn a quote of yours "...nature is a whole that recognizes no disciplinary boundaries" into a poster and put it on my wall.

Totally agree with your point: "..in 2013 the US spent only $2 billion on clean energy R&D, compared with $72 billion on defense R&D"- this is obscene. We Americans really don't know what real "defense" spending in the 21st century should mean,...

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 14, 2014 @ 14:47 GMT
Hi Rick,

Thank you for your kind and encouraging comments. I am really glad you liked my essay.

You are right about the importance of ethics. I believe ethicists will gain even more importance in the future with the new advances in science and technology, especially biotechnology.

I am glad you know about science in the Islamic world. I do wish we could regain our place in...

view entire post





Peter Jackson wrote on May. 15, 2014 @ 11:04 GMT
Mohammed,

A truly masterful essay identifying and well describing a comprehensive range of related issues and some solutions. I agree with all including; The need for innovation and major advancement of science, inter- or cross 'discipline' work, better teaching methods, information overload, new peer review and publication methods and inclusivity of access. Top marks for those....

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 15, 2014 @ 14:22 GMT
Peter,

Thank you very much for your kind and encouraging comments. I am glad you liked my essay.

I agree that in the current publication system, new controversial ideas may go unpublished, but if peer review happens after publishing those ideas will be available for those who appreciate them.

Thank you for mentioning your essays, I will read them as soon as possible.

Best regards,

Mohammed



Peter Jackson replied on May. 30, 2014 @ 20:14 GMT
Mohammed,

Than you. I hope the extension will now allow you the time to do so.

You'll find the 'discrete field' dynamics model ('DFM') highly consistent and predictive, employing the SR postulates but using Einstein's 1954 descriptions rather than the original 1905 ones which persist along with the paradoxes.

The problem is that despite the good words about open minds and...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 30, 2014 @ 21:03 GMT
Peter,

I am sorry, currently I do not have time to read your essays because of my final exams.

I agree that we need to question the foundations of physics, even those that are considered 'taboos'. However, I am optimistic; I believe the situation is starting to change. An increasing number of people are working on fundamental questions, and there are various places where those questions are discussed, such as the FQXi forums.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Luca Valeri wrote on May. 19, 2014 @ 12:37 GMT
Dear Mohammed,

Thanks for your essay. I agree in every point. And even better you provide makeable solutions! You earn a high score. Maybe I don't fully agree, that science and specifically technology can provide the solutions of the most urgent problems. Many problems are man made and are of structural nature. But also there science might help to enable us to steer the future.

Thanks again,

Luca

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 19, 2014 @ 13:40 GMT
Dear Luca,

Thank you for your kind comment. I am glad you agree with me.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Member Marc Séguin wrote on May. 19, 2014 @ 21:30 GMT
Mohammed,

I completely agree with you when you say that, since we cannot predict future scientific discoveries (as opposed to "mere" technological improvements), the best we can do is to try to make the process of science the most effective possible.

I believe as you do that "university departments should give periodic talks on the problems they are working on to stimulate...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 20, 2014 @ 14:41 GMT
Marc, I accidentally replied in a separate comment below. Sorry about that.




Author Mohammed M. Khalil wrote on May. 20, 2014 @ 14:37 GMT
Hi Marc,

Thank you so much for your kind and encouraging comments. I am really glad that you liked my essay and that you agree with me.

I think your idea of a full-time "synthesizer and reviewer" is important, but I do not think that many graduate students would review only, instead of doing original research. Thank you for mentioning the YouTube channels Veritasium and MinutePhysics; I find them very interesting.

Thanks again for the comment and the rating,

Mohammed




Don Limuti wrote on May. 21, 2014 @ 23:03 GMT
Mohammed,

I enjoyed your essay. It was a pleasure to read. Science can help, and it should be nurtured.

I think your optimism is catching.

Don Limuti

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 22, 2014 @ 14:36 GMT
Hi Don,

Thank you so much for your kind comment. I read your essay and I agree with you that improving education and enabling everyone to get a good education is extremely important for humanity's progress and for a better future.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Thomas Howard Ray wrote on May. 23, 2014 @ 11:13 GMT
Mohammed,

Thanks for this fact-filled, well written review of the state of science! You are a visionary, and your article is highly publishable regardless of any contest outcome. I hope your essay gets the visibility it deserves.

My own contribution echoes your emphasis on education and inter-disciplinary cooperation.

Best,

Tom

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 23, 2014 @ 15:10 GMT
Hi Tom,

Thank you for your encouraging comments. I skimmed your essay and there are indeed some similarities between our essays. I will read it and tell you my opinion.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Member Tommaso Bolognesi wrote on May. 23, 2014 @ 16:49 GMT
Dear Mohammed,

I gladly join the list. Your essay is very well written, and dense with references to concrete facts and percentages, which makes it solid and persuasive. Good and easily digested food for the reader!

A note of psychological character about your idea to publish negative results. While I see your point, I can imagine a number of circumstances in which I would...

view entire post


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Anonymous replied on May. 23, 2014 @ 18:29 GMT
Dear Tommaso,

Thank you very much for your kind and encouraging comments.

I totally agree with you that we should always question published results, and think of alternative methods and strategies. However, it's hard, or even impossible, for anyone to check everything they read; that's why reproducing research results and publishing them is very important.

I also agree that...

view entire post


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Ryoji Furui wrote on May. 26, 2014 @ 01:43 GMT
Dear Mohammed M. Khalil,

Very nice essay with full range of what you focus on. It is sometimes difficult to evaluate science including its socialistic impact but you guide it with broad point of view.

Regards,

Ryoji

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 26, 2014 @ 09:21 GMT
Thank you Ryoji for your encouraging comment.

Mohammed




Vladimir Rogozhin wrote on May. 26, 2014 @ 10:01 GMT
Dear Mohammed,

I read with interest your depth analysis and concrete proposals for a global project "Open Science". We need to hear the voice of the Earth, to give up Hope to New Generation of Earthlings. Time has come and we start the path together with the new Generation of the Information age. Fundamental science should go ahead.

I invite you to comment and appreciate my ideas

Best regards,

Vladimir

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 26, 2014 @ 16:24 GMT
Dear Vladimir,

Thank you for your encouraging comments. I am glad that you liked my essay and that you agree with me. And thanks for those great songs.

I have read you essay and commented.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Eckard Blumschein wrote on May. 27, 2014 @ 17:36 GMT
Mohammed,

Let me put a question that is less taboo to you:

You wrote: "History of science teaches us not to hold to unjustified assumptions, even if they are held by the majority, we should always consider opposing views. Unfortunately, we are making the same mistake again".

Well, you might argue that what you wrote in the introduction of your essay is absolutely...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 27, 2014 @ 19:07 GMT
Eckard,

I insist on what I wrote that we should not hold to unjustified assumptions. However, in my opinion, a justified assumption is one that has been tested experimentally, or at least has enough theoretical evidence to support until an experiment verifies.

Questioning the foundations of physics, including relativity, is very important. Nevertheless, for a new...

view entire post




Anonymous replied on May. 29, 2014 @ 06:33 GMT
Mohammed,

I consider strict philosophy at the roots of science, and I question your lazy statement:"This understanding [of space and time] made many technological applications possible, such as particle accelerators, nuclear power plants, and the GPS".

Even David Bohm admitted in his textbook on Special Relativity that achievements attributed to SR can also be attributed to other...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 29, 2014 @ 17:36 GMT
Eckard,

Thank you for your comment. Everyone is entitled to his opinion.

Mohammed




Robert de Neufville wrote on May. 31, 2014 @ 00:05 GMT
I'm glad I finally got a chance to read your smart, well-written essay, Khalil. I agree completely that we have to improve the way we conduct scientific research. You make a lot of excellent proposals for what we can do (my pet peve, for what it's worth, is the misunderstanding and misuse of p-values).

I would add that while improving the way we do science would be extremely valuable, better science won't address all our problems. Many of our problems aren't technical, but political; that is, over what we should do rather than how we can do it. In some ways—this what I argue in my own essay—I think the technical challenges we face may be easier to solve than the political ones.

Excellent essay, in any case. Good luck in the contest!

Best,

Robert de Neufville

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 31, 2014 @ 16:59 GMT
Hi Robert,

Thank you for your comment. I am glad we agree on the importance of improving the way we conduct scientific research.

I agree with you that politics is an obstacle towards solving many of humanity's problems, but I believe that science and technology have the greatest effect. For example, current technology exists for producing clean energy, but the problem is the cost. If science and technology reached a new method for generating energy that is cheaper than fossil fuel, politicians will support that method.

Best regards,

Mohammed




Michael Allan wrote on May. 31, 2014 @ 10:58 GMT
Hello Mohammed, May I post a short, but sincere critique of your essay? I'd ask you to return the favour. Here's my policy on that. - Mike

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on May. 31, 2014 @ 16:59 GMT
Hello Michael, thank you for your comment. I would be glad if you reviewed my essay, but currently I am busy with my exams and won't be able to review yours.




Michael Allan wrote on Jun. 1, 2014 @ 00:38 GMT
Okay. If matters change, please let me know. Meantime best of luck in your exams. - Mike

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Anonymous wrote on Jun. 1, 2014 @ 18:43 GMT
Dear Mohammed Khalil

You wrote a perfect study, how to improve science in the future.

I will add about wrong filters for amateur papers (people not from universities). I wrote about this in my essay. One example is because arXiv almost totally rejects papers from amateurs. Their principle with endorsers leaves almost zero number of amateur papers. I agree with stronger filter for...

view entire post


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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Jun. 3, 2014 @ 12:52 GMT
Hi Janko,

Thank you for your comment. I will check your essay as soon as possible.

Mohammed




Janko Kokosar wrote on Jun. 1, 2014 @ 18:44 GMT
Above it is my post.

Janko Kokosar

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Chidi Idika wrote on Jun. 3, 2014 @ 08:12 GMT
Dear Mohammed,

What I like about your essay is that it is well documented and matter-of-fact. Perhaps mine is on the controversial end. I wish you success in the contest.

Chidi

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Jun. 3, 2014 @ 12:51 GMT
Dear Chidi,

Thank you for your kind comment. I will read your essay as soon as possible.

Mohammed




Wilhelmus de Wilde wrote on Jun. 14, 2014 @ 16:02 GMT
dear Mohammed,

Congratulations with your high score in the community rating and now being a member of the finalists pool.

Science is one aspect of consciousness and I hope that the discussions will not be ended just after the community rating, you still can give public ratings.

So I feel honored to give you a direct link to my essay : "STEERING THE FUTURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ?" and hope that you will give me a comment on my thread.

Good luck with the "final judgement" and

best regards

Wilhelmus

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Jun. 14, 2014 @ 20:50 GMT
Dear Wilhelmus,

Thank you for your encouraging comment, and for mentioning your essay; I will read it as soon as possible.

Mohammed




Vladimir F. Tamari wrote on Aug. 22, 2014 @ 03:15 GMT
Dear Muhammad

Mabruuuuuuuk! مبروووووووك Congratulations for winning one of the top prizes for your wonderful essay.

Now, for the benefit of humanity, the World will have to live up to your and well-considered expectations and recommendations!

Vladimir

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Author Mohammed M. Khalil replied on Aug. 22, 2014 @ 09:52 GMT
Dear Vladimir,

Many thanks for the congratulations. I really appreciate it.

Mohammed




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