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Peter Jackson: on 8/9/13 at 9:40am UTC, wrote Akinbo, Congratulations, I was watching your bumpy roller coaster ride...

Jonathan Dickau: on 8/8/13 at 23:33pm UTC, wrote Congratulations Akinbo! I see it's now official - according to Brendan's...

Akinbo Ojo: on 8/7/13 at 8:40am UTC, wrote Hello Margriet, Thanks for sharing your thoughts. If you come out every...

Paul Borrill: on 8/7/13 at 5:11am UTC, wrote Akinbo - no need to apologize. This is my bias, not your problem. At a...

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FQXi FORUM
September 26, 2017

CATEGORY: It From Bit or Bit From It? Essay Contest (2013) [back]
TOPIC: On The Road Not Taken by Akinbo Ojo [refresh]
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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on May. 22, 2013 @ 16:57 GMT
Essay Abstract

Millennia ago, mankind arrived at a fork in the road. It became essential to answer a foundational question about the space in our universe. Are the most fundamental units of geometry, objects of zero dimension (dimensionless points) or would they be objects of an infinitesimal magnitude (extended points, i.e. monads)? As directed by Plato, physicists have followed the Zero Point road as an act of faith. Drawing on cues from the Pythagoreans, Aristotle, Proclus, Leibniz, Newton and Wheeler himself, we embark on a trip along Monad road. We report our suspicion that Mother Nature may have been using monads secretly as the 'it' (hardware), and their variable lifetimes as the 'bit' (the information and the software) of a digital universe, without obtaining Plato's consent.

Author Bio

Akinbo Ojo is a 1986 medical graduate of the University of Lagos, Nigeria and a practising physician. He has a keen interest in foundational physics topics and has authored a few unpublished papers. He also enjoys 'dialectic' with physicists over the internet.

Download Essay PDF File




Alan M. Kadin wrote on May. 23, 2013 @ 16:06 GMT
Dr. Ojo,

I enjoyed reading your elegantly written essay, with its theme of "taking the road less traveled by". But I would like to focus on a more recent fork in the road, associated with wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. Given the difficulty in choosing between a wave route and a particle route, the physics community in the 1930s refused to decide, and insisted that one can travel along both roads simultaneously. This is logically inconsistent, and is not resolved by application of abstract mathematics. I addressed this in last year's essay, "The Rise and Fall of Wave-Particle Duality" , where I pointed out that a consistent picture of quantum waves (not point particles) on the micro level leads directly to classical particle trajectories on the macro level. In this year's essay, "Watching the Clock: Quantum Rotations and Relative Time" , I show how the same consistent quantum picture leads simply to general relativity, but in a way that avoids mathematical artifacts such as event horizons and black holes. This is highly heretical, but such a unified foundation is what Einstein and others sought for without success. Furthermore, breakthroughs in science are not obtained by following the crowd; I, too, prefer to take the road less traveled by.

Alan Kadin

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 25, 2013 @ 19:24 GMT
Hi Alan,

Thanks for reading my essay and the road less traveled by will be less lonely if I have you for company :)

I observe your interest on wave-particle duality, which is one of the encountered difficulties on the zero point road. I therefore think it better to go further back in physics to identify the root cause of your area of interest.

One puzzle for you to ponder over, since the origin of duality started with the photon: When a light beam emerges from water to air, it starts travelling at a speed higher than hitherto. What is the origin of this speed increase? It is only waves that can increase speed when moving from one medium to another, particles cannot increase their speed that way. I may post more paradoxes on your essay page.

The import of monadology is that space is not a "nothing" but becomes substantival and will transmit signals as waves.



Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 27, 2013 @ 14:48 GMT
I have read your article on the wave-particle duality. As I said some of the problems may result from the view that space is a 'nothing'.

You said "So if an electron is truly a fundamental particle, it had to be a point particle,which clearly cannot be divided further.." Is your definition of point particle one of zero dimension?

You also said "Applying special relativity to this massive photon in its rest

frame.." Can a photon be at rest in any frame? What is the velocity in other frames? These are unintended fall outs of what you rightly pointed out as "Generations of physicists have been educated to ignore physical intuition about the paradoxes, while focusing on mathematics divorced from physical pictures. In response, the field of theoretical physics became more mathematically abstract, straying far from its origins explaining the behavior of real objects

moving in real space"

The correctness or not of NQP proposal must come after you have first settled the question whether space is nothing but a relational entity or on the contrary a substantial thing.

Regards




John Merryman wrote on May. 23, 2013 @ 20:10 GMT
Dr. Ojo,

That is a very well presented argument for extended point objects. While I certainly agree the zero point is an abstraction canceled by the very laws of abstract math it supports, ie, anything multiplied by zero is zero, thus a zero dimensional point is no more real than a zero dimensional apple, I think monads have their own conceptual problems, in the border issue. Necessarily a...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 25, 2013 @ 19:38 GMT
Hello John,

I appreciate your comments on my paper. You mention your difficulty on the border issue.... "Necessarily a border would have to be smaller than the dimension it limits, but this refutes the claim of smallest possible measure". If you consider that a border is a geometric object (likely to be a line or curve) and the Pythagorean idea is that the monad is the smallest possible geometric object, then it cannot have a shape and that being so it cannot have defined borders. Borders are attributes of composite geometric objects or else you start asking how many parts can a border be divided into? I agree the picture is not a familiar, everyday one but based on logic I concur with Leibniz on that attribute. Do you still disagree on the border issue? Regards




Marcus Arvan wrote on May. 23, 2013 @ 22:11 GMT
Akinbo: I think the reasons you adduce in favor of something like Leibniz's monads are basically sound -- and they're the reasons Leibniz gave, as well as the reasons Kant gave for "things in the themselves" (i.e. noumena). The argument is this: the physical things and properties we observe and measure (e.g. mass, extension, charge, etc.) are simply *relations* between things. Mass *is* what...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 25, 2013 @ 20:00 GMT
Dear Marcus,

I am happy you found time to read my essay and would probably want you to enjoy a tour on Monad Highway. You must be aware that on the zero point road, we have been having different drivers changing seats. First the Mathematicians, then the Particle theorists and probably Computer scientists are warming up going by this year's essay topic. I recall Einstein saying somewhere that the moment mathematicians took over his theory he himself could no longer recognize it anymore. I will therefore not give you reassurance by delving into 'probabilistic blurs' so as not to fall into the trap of Mathematicians... The issue to focus on is whether there is a limit to divisibility? Mathematically, the answer is NO but Physically, what is your take? Cheers



Michael Helland replied on May. 30, 2013 @ 01:36 GMT
Monads are what matter is pre-measurement.

Particles, atoms, molecules, and stuff in general exist as measurements the monads made of themselves.

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Joe Fisher wrote on May. 24, 2013 @ 16:13 GMT
Dr. Ojo,

I thought your essay was very well written. As I have explained in my essay BITTERS, the real Universe and everything in it is unique, once. As conspicuously noted in your essay, philosophers and mathematicians have historically always ignored unique in favor of attempting to propound some sort of repeatable identical theoretical states. They have easily described the identical properties of the invisible.

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 25, 2013 @ 20:05 GMT
Dear Joe,

I will read your essay BITTERS this weekend and thanks for your comment. Like I have asked others, what is your take on whether or not there is a limit to divisibility? Do you agree that a line has no breadth and a surface can really exist with zero thickness?

Regards,

Akinbo



Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 27, 2013 @ 14:15 GMT
Hi Joe,

I have read your essay titled BITTERS but I will do so only ONCE :) The title and the abstract do not do justice to the SWEETNESS contained in the body of the essay. There is a resemblance between your 'unique' viewpoint and the powerful Philosophy of the One advocated by Parmenides and his student Zeno. You can google this and also check them out in the Aristotle references in my essay.

The questions I asked in my last post I think will throw light on your uniqueness theory.

Cheers.

Akinbo



Joe Fisher replied on Jun. 4, 2013 @ 16:58 GMT
Dr. Ojo,

I am terribly sorry for rudely not answering your question, I lost track of my essay comments. Uniqueness cannot be quantified, qualified or rectified. Real uniqueness cannot be contrived, constructed or construed. Nature only deals in real uniqueness once and it only produces one whole real thing once. For instance, nature has produced one real unique whole me and one real unique whole you once. Mathematicians believe that there are such things as postulated identical “whole “ numbers, and these identical “whole” numbers can be odd or even and they can be repeatedly divided, multiplied and equated, provided some sort of abstract identical laws are applied to the process. Whereas there is no limit to the divisibility of an abstract 1, a real one cannot ever be divided.

Unique real nature does not provide any separable lines or surfaces.

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Eckard Blumschein wrote on May. 25, 2013 @ 08:35 GMT
Dr. Ojo,

You wrote "then the definition of the point and other objects of geometry

will eventually need to be revisited." While I enjoy many aspects of your refreshing approach, I prefer to simply distinguish instead between the ideal Euclidean mathematical object point, Leibniz's infinitesimal, and the assumed smallest physical entity.

You might read earlier essays of mine. Recently I got aware of what I consider an inconsistency in Wheeler's thinking: The dichotomy of yes/no-questions corresponds to rational numbers. The calculus used as to derive putatively physical singularities is based on the trichotomy of the real numbers. If Wheeler is correct, and the reality can be thought as a superposition on yes/no-basis, then the singularities are mere mathematical fictions like for instance the middle line inside of a electric conductor.

Eckard

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 25, 2013 @ 20:08 GMT
Hi Eckard,

Thanks for your comments. I will try and read your essay this weekend and give you my opinion.

Akinbo



Akinbo Ojo replied on May. 30, 2013 @ 14:17 GMT
Dear Eckard,

I have read your essays 369 and 527. Both reflect your strong engineering background. Signalling as well as Classical and Quantum measurements take place in an arena we call 'space'. All are agreed on this.

Surely, whether or not this arena is a "nothing", i.e. merely a relational concept which by implication will be infinitely divisible being a mathematical entity as propagated by the Platonic school OR a "something", i.e. a substantival thing, which by implication of the action-reaction principle must be capable of acting and being acted upon, must have implications for signalling and measurements.

Again, in line with the theme of this year's essay, if the arena is a substantival thing, then Nature can store its information in it.

Being an engineer you can explore what ideas such as 'Cellular Automaton', 'A New Kind of Science' by Stephen Wolfram, 'Digital Physics' by Edward Fredkin can do for your theories on signalling (check these out initially on Wikipedia).

Until proved otherwise, for me, monads are candidates for the fundamental Cellular Automata.

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basudeba mishra wrote on Jun. 5, 2013 @ 16:15 GMT
Dear Sir,

The most striking thing about your essay is the glossary at the beginning. For unambiguous communication, we must assign precise and fixed meaning to the technical terms we use. Unfortunately, most scientists use an operational definition, which can be suitably manipulated in all possible manner. Congratulations for this bold approach. However, we wish you should have also defined...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jun. 7, 2013 @ 08:33 GMT
Hi Basudeba,

Thanks for reply.

RE: Dimensions are perceived (ocular perception) through electromagnetic radiation, …

No. I don’t agree. Dimension can also be perceived in other ways, e.g. by sense of touch

RE: A point, which does not have “internal structural space”, cannot have dimension.

A fundamental geometric object cannot have internal structure. It can "have no parts". See Euclid's definition and my reference to a translation of Leibniz Monadology, available online). The issue whether a fundamental object can or cannot have dimension IS THE CRUX of the matter!!. Plato is not sure but asks us to assume they cannot have dimension. Aristotle, Proclus, Leibniz and the Pythagoreans INSIST that that fundamental object cannot be dimensionless if it exists.

RE: no event can be said to be the first event or the last event. Hence time, like space, is infinite.

Possibly. But if the universe has a beginning and emerged from nothing then there is a first event and if there is going to be a Big Crunch, there will be a last event.

RE: Zeno's Dichotomy paradox has nothing to do with velocity, unless you are referring to his paradox of Achilles and the tortoise. What Zeno is saying is that IF there is an infinite number of places between origin and destination then the runner will not reach his destination. For an account of the paradoxes, check out

http://www.iep.utm.edu/zeno-par/

http://plato.stanford.edu
/entries/paradox-zeno

Wikipedia

Best regards,

Akinbo




Edwin Eugene Klingman wrote on Jun. 6, 2013 @ 02:23 GMT
Akinbo,

I was very impressed with your essay. I have tried to prepare a comment on your essay, walking along the Extended Point Highway, but I am uncertain as to how the 'point' or 'extension' works in with Leibniz' belief that perception and consciousness cannot be 'mechanical'. So rather than display my confusion, I became sidetracked by a comment you made on Phil Gibbs' blog. Referring to the concept of bit as the answer to 'yes/no' questions, you asked Phil:

"What is the question?'

I believe that the essential question is 'One or Many?'

The Multiverse theory is based on hundreds of (hypothesized) fields, leading to 10-to-the-500 universes, all invoked to explain 'fine tuning'.

The Zen 'theory' is that the universe is essentially, 'not-two'.

I tend to fall on the 'not-two' side and address this in my essay. I hope you enjoy it as much as I enjoyed your essay.

Welcome to FQXi. You are already a valued participant.

Best,

Edwin Eugene Klingman

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jun. 7, 2013 @ 08:58 GMT
Thanks Eugene!

As you must have observed there are so many similarities between our essays. I think the appropriate place to comment on your essay is on your blog and I will be doing that right away.

RE: I believe that the essential question is 'One or Many?'

Before asking this, dont you think you should ask the question: existing (1)/not existing (0)? Then, if the binary answer is 1, ONLY THEN you follow up with ONE or MANY? But if you ask me, that is the SECOND MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION and till today it has not been answered to everybody's satisfaction. Somewhere in Aristotle's papers, either Physics or Metaphysics you will find more. Parmenides and his student Zeno are the major proponents and are yet to be fully faulted, despite the use of Calculus and other mathematical tools (see Dowden' article on Zeno http://www.iep.utm.edu/zeno-par/

I am glad to be in this community and someone here, Joe, always brings a smile to my face when I see 'codswallop'. He appears to believe in 'not-two' as well, though he prefers the term UNIQUE and ONCE.

Cheers and all the best.

Akinbo



Edwin Eugene Klingman replied on Jun. 7, 2013 @ 23:08 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

Thanks for reading and for your gracious comments. I've observed that you always ask good questions!

1.) As I noted in an earlier essay, Eugenio Calabi in 1953 essentially asked if our Master equation was valid:

"Could there be gravity ... even if space is a vacuum totally devoid of matter?"

He reasoned: "...being non-linear, gravity can interact with...

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Edwin Eugene Klingman replied on Jun. 7, 2013 @ 23:18 GMT
Akinbo,

Too many windows open. The above was intended for my blog, where you numbered your questions.

As for your question above, I tend to assume existence, but if one has doubts, then I agree, that is the first question!

Joe is also right, but tends, I believe, to overlook some of the fine points.

Best,

Edwin Eugene Klingman

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Peter Jackson wrote on Jun. 6, 2013 @ 11:48 GMT
Akinbo,

Beautifully written essay, good concept and well argued. I agree the fork analogy (and also used it often) and particularly the argument about the implications of non-point particles. I hope you may read my last years essay which went a long way down that road and found many implications, as well as this years, firmly distinguishing the mathematical 'point' from nature.

One proposal is that Monad density may be variable and indeed have gravitational potential, so equivalent to dark matter. I identified these in my 2011 essay as the ions of the iono/ plasmaspheres of space, which then also act as the a border of 'boundary' condition and mechanism. This may help show the great potential of the fork you take.

As Einstein said objects are not 'in' space but are 'spatially extended'. The border may then be a scattering surface defining an inertial system.

Well written, good to read, and certainly a very good score to come from me. I'd also greatly welcome your views on my own essay, which may just give you a (rather dense) taste of what I have derived may lie down that road to 'physical reality'.

Best of luck

Peter

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jun. 8, 2013 @ 11:48 GMT
Hello Peter,

Thanks for your comments. I have commented on your blog for last year's essay and right after this will be commenting on your essay for this year.

On Monads having variable density, it is my opinion that mass and so density is an acquired attribute and so will be a property of composite things. Apart from mass-energy 'interconversion' which suggests that mass is not fundamental. I have also suggested elsewhere that there will be a "temperature problem" in cosmology unless the universe's mass was increasing with its radius, starting from an initial Planck mass, 10^-8kg. Without this the universe will have a temperature 10^47K rather than 10^32K if all the universe's mass now ~10^52kg was present in the early era, inflation or not. (You can check this out yourself using the law relating energy density to temperature). I therefore appreciate your position but to me like the Pythagoreans, the SOLE property of monads is Position.

On what Einstein said, while not always agreeing with all he postulates, I think what this means is that Space is NOT JUST THE CONTAINER but is THE CONTENT as well. And then what is an object? Is a 'geometric point' an object? If so, then the Einstein saying you quote implies it is extended and has a physical reality. What is the consequence of this?

Let me stop here now and drop a few lines on your blog for this year's essay which I just read.

Regards,

Akinbo



Peter Jackson replied on Jul. 8, 2013 @ 18:07 GMT
Akinbo,

Just a quickie amid wading through other essays.

You suggest, as the doctrine, that dark matter can't be baryonic. Do you have any other reason than it's low/zero em cross section? Did you know that plasma, including H, He etc ions, has a refractive index of one, giving it a zero em cross section? Very few in MS seem to know or case anything about plasma physics so such things get ignored.

Last year I fully argued the solid case for fermion pair production as the basis for dark matter, but leading to a significant baryon fraction.

Best wishes

Peter

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George Gantz wrote on Jun. 7, 2013 @ 16:23 GMT
Thanks for the fine essay. It seems then that Plato wins the verdict - the abstract geometrical form of "point" cannot be pinned down by the finite limitations of the physical world, but exist most beautifully in the higher mental realm. Indeed, for the mathematician, the line is infinitely divisible and a multiplicity of infinities can easily be imagined. Not so for the poor physicist who must suffer with the ugly discontinuity of monads that pop in and out of existence.

Query - for physics to be complete, do monads require other properties than simply on or off?

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jun. 8, 2013 @ 13:10 GMT
Hi George,

I like your humor! And it seems you really grasped what I had to say. Will look out for your essay here or in previous contests as I am just popping into existence here.

Now as to your query... To make things easier for the physicist it would have been easier for the monad to have other properties. But as Einstein would say, "an inner voice" tells me that the Old One would love to build reality out of the least number and the simplest of properties/ raw materials, i.e. "space" and "time" alone. All other properties, like charge, mass, etc must in someway be acquired properties and not fundamental. Wheeler himself tried to reduce ALL physics to GEOMETRO (space)-DYNAMICS (time).I think his undoing was his travelling on Zero Point road.

Cheerio,

Akinbo




Roger Granet wrote on Jun. 10, 2013 @ 03:41 GMT
Akinbo,

Hi. Yours was a very good essay! As you mentioned in your posting on my essay, several of us are thinking along the same lines: using a bottom-up approach to model reality based on discrete units (monads, existent states, etc.). In addition to Franklin Hu, Kjetil Hustveit had a similar essay.

If I understood it correctly, one of the things I don't think I'll...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jun. 10, 2013 @ 11:20 GMT
Thanks Roger for your comprehensive reply. I believe this forum will bring back the 'dialectic' and reductio ad absurdum arguments that placed physics, hitherto called 'natural philosophy' where it was till the end of Newton's era.

You say, "If I understood it correctly, one of the things I don't think I'll agree on is that monads/existent states can't have a border. In my thinking, the border is not some separate structure because as someone above pointed out.."

RE: Yes. The scenario is an unfamiliar one. We are used to things having borders and shapes in everyday life. But then, what is a 'border'? Is it not made of lines and curves? If lines and curves are geometrically composite things, how then can a fundamental geometric unit have them? So I agree 100% with your comment that "Instead, I think the monad/existent state AND its border are really one and the same thing". In this vein I also agree that a grouping, being a composite can have a border. Leibniz agrees with us in paragraphs 1-3, see his Monadology:

"1. My topic here will be the monad, which is just a simple

substance. By calling it ‘simple’ I mean that it has no parts,

though it can be a part of something composite.

2. There must be simple substances, because there are composites.

A composite thing is just a collection of simple ones

that happen to have come together.

3. Something that has no parts can’t be extended, CAN'T HAVE A SHAPE, and can’t be split up. So monads are the true atoms of Nature—the elements out of which everything is made".

You say, "This next part is usually where I usually lose people, so you might want to stop here".

Hmmm...I wont stop here, so we can thrash this out I will say more on your blog since you raise the issue.

All the best,

Akinbo



Roger Granet replied on Jun. 11, 2013 @ 02:31 GMT
Akinbo,

Thanks for the reply. That Leibniz sounds like he was a pretty smart guy! I'll write more over at your other comment. See you there!

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Anton W.M. Biermans wrote on Jun. 11, 2013 @ 11:56 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

Though energy is quantified, that does not mean that the Planck constant is a minimum energy, and hence the Planck length the smallest possible length in the universe.

The short reasoning* is that since in blackbody radiation there are more energy levels per unit energy interval at higher energies, temperatures, so we need more and more decimals to distinguish successive...

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Anton Biermans replied on Jun. 25, 2013 @ 06:50 GMT
Akinbo,

As the subject of Zeno's dichotomy belongs more to your thread than to mine, I post my reply to your post at my thread on yours -be it in a more concise form. OK?

According to relativity theory the length the walker observes his path to have depends on the pace he walks at: the faster he moves, the more contracted the path looks to him, to shrink to zero length if he could walk at the speed of light. So it are the relativistic effects of his motion, however tiny at walking pace, which allow the traveler, despite the mathematic impossibility, to reach his destination. Zeno's concept of space is that of classical mechanics which assumes that it is the same (cosmic) time everywhere, that we live in a mathematical space were all points are identical but for their coordinates. In the actual spacetime we live in, the observed pace of clocks and length of yardsticks differs slightly at different distances, so you might say that the different points of his path live in slightly different universes, so the traveler at the end of his walk isn't the exact same person as the one who departed at the other end.

Anton

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Joe Fisher wrote on Jun. 15, 2013 @ 15:39 GMT
Doctor Ojo,

Thank you for furnishing the website link to Plato’s rendition of Parmenides. I think the only improvement I may have added to our understanding of what unique is, is my tautological emphasis on once. It is not the fact that a fingerprint is unique once to each person who has lived, it is unique once to each person who will ever come into existence in the future. This will apply even if cloning becomes real. Aliens may exist, but if they do, they cannot have fingerprints or DNA in their cells.

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Hoang cao Hai wrote on Jun. 17, 2013 @ 20:15 GMT
Dear Akinbo

An interesting presentation.

You can add comments to a prosecution lawyer in the following, or not:

It does not come from bits and the bits also did not born from it.

It is itself - it was born from the process activity of nature - because if there is no source of information dissemination, the information will not have to take over, and the bit is always available everywhere,so bit is not something that was born from it, the bit only absorb and transmission the impact from the source dispersal of information.

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1802

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Edwin Eugene Klingman wrote on Jun. 21, 2013 @ 19:35 GMT
Dear Akinbo Ojo,

I would like to suggest that you look at Heckman's essay. It occurred to me that identification of his "agents" with your "monads" leads to some interesting perspectives.

Best,

Edwin Eugene Klingman

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Antony Ryan wrote on Jun. 23, 2013 @ 23:57 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I like the closing statement that all is geometry and Bit and It seem to be just as fundamental. Also they style and format of your essay is nicely put together.

Perhaps my essay isn't too far removed from your own line of thinking to be worth a read?

Best wishes,

Antony

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Antony Ryan replied on Jun. 25, 2013 @ 00:38 GMT
Hello Akinbo,

Thanks for you kind comments over on my page. I've replied. I found your comments to be very helpful and thought provoking in line with the aims of the contest. Pleasure to "meet" you!

Cheers,

Antony

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Hon Jia Koh wrote on Jun. 24, 2013 @ 17:10 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Thanks for commenting on my essay and introducing me to yours and about Leibniz's monads. I am flattered by its resonance and intrigued by the differences and their potential ways of reconciliation.

Take the idea of "lifetime" of monads in your essay which you also probed in the comment. From the perspective of monads, I would not treat lifetime of monads to be defined or derived from time if time has no further derivative. When monad appears from nowhere to somewhere, how does one define on long it has taken it to do so since there is no way to tell how long it has been in nowhere. Unless reference is made to something else which has the quality of time and that something else couldn't be a monad because it will spiral into infinite chaos and confusion if so. But from the perspective of non-monad, the monad will appear to have a lifetime between annihilation and creation and vice-versa. However the non-monad will have no way to identify which monad has been annihilated and created again, because the monad would have to leave traces or parts behind for the non-monad to identify, where no monad will do, since there are no parts to monad. Therefore monad cannot exist within the non-monad 'time-based' system and this is where we differ subtly it seems.

Regards,

Hon Jia

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Anonymous replied on Jun. 25, 2013 @ 13:36 GMT
Hello Hon Jia,

Thanks for your comments. I cannot tell you I have all the answers but I do not see any other road that can lead us to truth and reality. The further details will be filled in by dialectic and reductio ad absurdum type arguments.

For example, nothing, not even a monad can exist in nowhere. A monad is a something and a somewhere. Nowhere means no place. If you check the...

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Anonymous wrote on Jun. 25, 2013 @ 04:30 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Your work is really attractive. I am fully agree that thickness and actual sizes of objects must be no ignored in realistic descriptions. In the classical physics this demand is considered. However the matter is different in QM representation. Here you are right fully. On this question open please the reference from my article ,,Rethinking the Formal methodology ...,, and email my from there. I think we can talk seriously!

Sincerely,

George

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1804

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Henry H. Lindner wrote on Jun. 26, 2013 @ 10:01 GMT
Akinbo,

Thanks for reading my paper. You are of course correct that the geometric point is a mathematical fiction, as are infinity and other mathematical concepts. Math is an abstract representational system. Math is not physics, although the two have been conflated by our observer-based measurement models (Relativity and QM). The facts clearly demand the hypothesis that space is a...

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Hoang cao Hai wrote on Jun. 27, 2013 @ 04:15 GMT
Send to all of you

THE ADDITIONAL ARTICLES AND A SMALL TEST FOR MUTUAL BENEFIT

To change the atmosphere "abstract" of the competition and to demonstrate for the real preeminent possibility of the Absolute theory as well as to clarify the issues I mentioned in the essay and to avoid duplicate questions after receiving the opinion of you , I will add a reply to you :

1 . THE...

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Patrick Tonin wrote on Jun. 29, 2013 @ 15:29 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

I very much liked your essay. I never heard of these Monads before, they are very similar to my UB's (Universal Bits).

I believe that for a coherent world to develop, these monads need to follow a simple rule. I have described this simple rule in my essay. By following that simple rule, a coherent world with time and space emerges.

If you have the time, please take a look at my essay. I would love to have your comments. If you like the ideas in it, you can read the full story here:3D Universe Theory

Cheers,

Patrick

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Helmut Hansen wrote on Jul. 1, 2013 @ 12:26 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

I left a comment on my website.

http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1773

Regards

Helmut

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Vladimir F. Tamari wrote on Jul. 3, 2013 @ 02:41 GMT
Dear Dr. Ojo

Congratulatins for writing a lucid, engaging, enjoyable and thought-provoking essay, and one (unlike many others here) relevant to the It-Bit contest question.

Your learned guided tour along the Monad Road was of special interest to me because in my 2005 Beautiful Universe Theory also found here I have proposed a Universe composed of a single building block - I call it a node, but you may as well call it a physical monad. While I have not speculated on the 'size' of this node it differs from yours because it does not disappear/appear to describe motion as in your figure. Rather, a pattern of node orientations and energy changes, while the nodes themselves do not move or disappear. Please see Figure 26 in the above mentioned paper to illustrate this rather complicated convoluted motion!

Again thank you for an excellent read - I will also read Newton's paper that you referenced that I did not know about.

With very best wishes, Your Honor.

Vladimir

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 3, 2013 @ 11:52 GMT
Hi Vladimir,

Thanks for your comments. I will take a look at your Beautiful Universe Theory and give some opinion on your blog when I do. It will be nice to compare and contrast nodes and monads.

Regards,

Akinbo




James Lee Hoover wrote on Jul. 3, 2013 @ 18:39 GMT
Akinbo,

If given the time and the wits to evaluate over 120 more entries, I have a month to try. My seemingly whimsical title, “It’s good to be the king,” is serious about our subject.

Jim

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James Lee Hoover wrote on Jul. 4, 2013 @ 18:39 GMT
Akinbo,

I cannot adhere to your "monad" concept but admire your presentation. It fits into the concept of a physical world of BB virtual particles erupting and inflating in vast numbers where time measures their demise -- an example, but I see no consciousness to observe -- as Wheeler would prescribe. I see consciousness as a feeble participant sensually -- noting a small percentage of physical phenomena (visual range narrow in EM spectrum, for example). The think your argument is clever and acknowledge that if I were gifted mathematically, my own images and concepts might veer in your direction. Monad Road fits into the universe as a computer. I see the 1010 input as the years 1010 but did I miss the significance of the happening in that year -- a thousand years ago the road taken.

Jim

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 5, 2013 @ 10:39 GMT
Hello Jim,

Thanks for reading and commenting.

I agree with Wheeler substantially as you see in my essay. Trying to decode that It from Bit puzzle. However, I will not swallow the "consciousness" prescription. The side effects are too many and what is more it would not cure any real physical ailment.

Here are a few of my reasons...

-Consciousness is the output of complex computation going on in the brain, most of which occur at the quantum level. Can an Output be part of the Input? Are molecules and atoms conscious?

- And on the hypothesis that Consciousness has a role in measurement, can measurement be done without a physical involvement? If not, it is the physical things involved in measurement that can distort measured things not Consciousness itself.

Anyway, Consciousness and even its definition is a wide topic. Same with 'life' and 'soul', 'love' etc.

Cheerio,

Akinbo

*If you want us to do more dialectic on consciousness I can come over to your blog.




Zoran Mijatovic wrote on Jul. 5, 2013 @ 08:17 GMT
Hello Akinbo,

I took your advice and downloaded the PDF at the end of your hyperlink, but after the first few pages I realized there were some fundamental differences between a "monad" and a "pointy bit" (pbit), and given that I would prefer to look directly a Leibniz's work before commenting on it, all I can say is that in item 3 the monad is extension-less, and not something infinitely small in extension. Whether this PDF is an accurate reflection of Leibniz's views is moot, because I simply can not accommodate things without extension in my understanding of reality. As a software engineer I can entertain any number of dimensions, but they are simple data structures, I can't go home and build a tree house in ten dimensions however much kids want a secret cubby hole with a Brane to keep rain from the eleventh dimension out. And with all due respect to Plato, it is my contention that Plato threw his subordinates an extension-less bone, and anyone caught chewing on that bone made themselves immediately subordinate to Plato, for ever and ever amen.

A pointy bit in my essay, i.e. (pbit), has extension in all three dimensions, and a net extension where one end is different to another, in other words its primary property is "direction". How big it is and whether or not it is divisible is moot if the idea can be used to describe the nature of gravity and the means to creating objects which are a stable configuration of those simple building blocks.

If I were you I would call your conception of a monad "Plank's dot" and describe its properties as uniform and immutable; and then add to that whatever else you need to satisfy others. Had you done so from the start your essay would have been half the size.

Now, if you win, and you take my advice and call it a (pdot), I want some credit.

Cheers!

Zoran.

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 5, 2013 @ 10:26 GMT
Thanks Zoran,

Very funny. That Plato's bone having length and no breadth must be really delicious since we have been chewing it for over 2000 years!

In my thinking, the first 8 paragraphs of Leibniz monadology are the useful part. The remaining dwell on trying to factor God into the picture.

By 'can't be extended' is to mean can't be stretched into shapes. So rest assured, the monad has a fundamental extension, but it cannot be further extended. Recall that this is actually the area of divergence in describing the basic unit of geometry between the Pythagoreans and Plato as I point out in my essay.

Thanks for the Planck's dot suggestion. I didn't want to invent yet another term. And as to properties, I don't also want to add any to what the Pythagoreans and Leibniz have suggested, i.e. "position" and "a lifetime". The task ahead is to build up all other properties of existence and composite things such as mass and charge from a fundamental thing not possessing those attributes.

Regards,

Akinbo




john stephan selye wrote on Jul. 5, 2013 @ 19:35 GMT
Congratulations on a very well written and thought provoking paper, Dr. Ojo.

To dig deep into the past like this and put things in perspective is inspiring, and of substantial benefit to anyone interested in discovering the road we might be taking into the future.

The way I interpret your concept is that the Planck length indicates that all things are substantial, and that...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 6, 2013 @ 09:53 GMT
Hello John,

An equally thought provoking reply I must say, a true example of Newton's third law: action and reaction are equal and opposite!

A number of essays have just been uploaded bringing the count to over 300.

I will certainly read yours and give you some criticism and hopefully some praise.

I appreciate very much your critical comments, these have have been lacking.

Best regards,

Akinbo




Domenico Oricchio wrote on Jul. 5, 2013 @ 21:40 GMT
In response to my post.

I reread your article (I scored and read all until today).

I like your idea of information: until now I associate it to a transmission or reception; it is strong to associate the information to the act to measure (in transmission or reception): a numerical string is measured, a communication channel is measured, the Kolmogorov complexity need a knowledge of the object (so it is necessary the measure of the object).

It seem that your definition is more inclusive, and fundamental.

I think that each particles is a gravitational positive-curvature ball, and each antiparticles a negative-curvature curvature ball, so that with the aligned matter-antimatter annihilation can be obtained gauge boson for each possible integer spin (infinite possible interactions). This my old idea seem similar to the geometrodynamic of Wheeler. There is an analogy with your concept of monad.

It would be my defeat reach the top essays, after thinking for a smart method to stay out.

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 6, 2013 @ 10:05 GMT
Thanks Domenico

Saluti!

Akinbo




Andrej Rehak wrote on Jul. 6, 2013 @ 03:30 GMT
Dear Akinbo

I appreciate your style: spirit, originality and accuracy. Your depiction of movement thru space associates me to how digital presentation of reality creates that illusion. One pixel appears and while disappearing the neighbouring one appears and so on... Or Newton’s Cradle.

However, when addressing the finite dimensions of space or time... Planck’s length over Plank’s time measures the same speed of light. Is there a logical, mathematical or any other acceptable reason to conclude that perception inside Planks world, or any other, is anyhow different from ours?

And another problem addresses digital concept, yes or no, 1 or 0.

The product of any number and zero is zero. So we write 1, meaning, it is true. Any number multiplied by infinity is infinity. We write 1 again. The question is: what do we write for the product of zero and infinity?

Best regards

Andrej

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 12, 2013 @ 12:03 GMT
Thanks Andrej,

I am increasingly coming across suggestions referring to the monad as Planck's pixel. This may be due to the information age wherein and would be welcome if it solves our problems. Terminology is secondary.

Concerning perception, what is perception? Is it different from consciousness? Can a non-living thing like a video-camera monitoring people be said to be perceiving? Because of the confusion associated with this term I cannot give you a definite answer without knowing what you mean. But to me things like consciousness, perception, etc are the output of a computer algorithm and do not form part of the input.

To be frank I have no answer to the last question. Perhaps, this is where superposition between 0 and 1 may come to the rescue.

My Regards,

Akinbo




Vladimir Rogozhin wrote on Jul. 11, 2013 @ 10:15 GMT
Hello Akinbo,

I'd love to read your essay. Very interesting ideas. Yes, understanding - that's "grasp the structure" (Gutner). Today, the task of "grab" the structure of the "point" - Zero Point. It means to grab the desired structure of space…

One day in spring 1996 a conference "Sense of Life" passed at the Moscow State University. Doctor of psychological sciences, blind and deaf...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 12, 2013 @ 12:10 GMT
Waiting for you at the fork in the road Vladimir!

Good luck too




Armin Nikkhah Shirazi wrote on Jul. 11, 2013 @ 11:51 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

You have written a thought provoking essay. I liked the glossary at the beginning, the frequent references to what historical figures thought on this topic and the original presentation.

Let me state upfront that I find the concept of a point particle problematic and have in the past myself entertained the thought that these are really endowed with finite extent. Perhaps because of that there were some issues that I would have liked to see addressed in your essay which I did not find. I think that you will need to provide answers to some of the questions below before more people will take this idea seriously:

1) Take your characterization of force in figs 1 and 2. Since a monad is incompressible and has no parts, the process of changing its associated value from 1 to 0 in one location and then to 0 to 1 in the adjacent location must happen instantaneously. If it is not instantaneous, then either the monad is compressed or part of the monad disappears to allow for a finite interval for the effect of the force to spread across the monad. Let us string some large number of monads adjacent to each other. The force exerted on the first monad instantanteously affects the second, and then the third and so on, until the last monad is reached. But monads have finite extent, so the force propagates infinitely fast across the entire string, yet we do not see forces that propagate infinitely fast in nature. How do you explain this?

2) It seems that the monads can only take either the values 0 or 1. Yet quantum objects are characterized by the superposition principle, which in the simplest case of a qubit means that you can have an object that is characterized both by 0 and 1, and furthermore, you can prepare states where the contribution of each to the superposition can be anything between 0

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Armin Nikkhah Shirazi wrote on Jul. 11, 2013 @ 11:55 GMT
I forgot that there is a glitch (I noticed from previous contests ) which cuts the message when the text compiler encounters a "less than" sign. Here is the rest of my post:

0 "less than" sqrt(x) "less than" 1 where x is the probability of finding the object in that state if it is measured. How do you get qubits out of your framework?

3) It is very hard for me to visualize an extended object without a boundary. What does that mean? It seems to me that if a monad is three-dimensional it should be associated with a two-dimensional surface. How is it possible that it isn't?

Your writing style is very lucid and if you can find satisfactory answers to these questions it would make your position much stronger.

All the best,

Armin

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 12, 2013 @ 13:17 GMT
Dear Armin,

Thanks for being a good sounding board.

RE: 1) Thanks for this thought provoking comment. I have had to scratch my head a bit on that…

A monad cannot be compressed, neither can it disappear in parts, see Leibniz. I am not sure I get you correctly but the appearance or disappearance does not happen in zero seconds, if that is what you mean by instantaneous....

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Sreenath B N wrote on Jul. 11, 2013 @ 15:48 GMT
Dear Dr. Ojo,

I have down loaded your essay and soon post my comments on it. Meanwhile, please, go through my essay and post your comments. Being yourself a physician, you might like the biology section of my essay.

Regards and good luck in the contest.

Sreenath BN.

http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1827

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George Kirakosyan wrote on Jul. 15, 2013 @ 08:43 GMT
Dear Akimbo,

We have started our discussion and not yet finishing that. I have re reading your work and our comments one more (in my forum) and now I am hope we can mutually resumed our opinions and impressions which will be right for us. I hope get your response on this ask (If you think the same!)

Sincerely,

George

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 15, 2013 @ 10:05 GMT
Will reply on your blog

Regards,

Akinbo



George Kirakosyan replied on Jul. 15, 2013 @ 10:47 GMT
Dear Akimbo,

I have ask you to resume our conclusions/opinions and you have offered a new discussion, more perspectiveless than the base one! Thank you for nice joke.

I have one small vs. question to you (the answer soposed in binary system!)

Are your patients always happy with your treatment?

Regards,

George

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 15, 2013 @ 18:18 GMT
Ha ha ha George! You have make me laugh. I think the answer to your question is a superposition of 0 and 1.

Best regards,

Akinbo




Vladimir F. Tamari wrote on Jul. 16, 2013 @ 04:09 GMT
Dear Dr. Akinbo. Hello, and apologies if this does not apply to you or your patients. I have read and rated your essay and about 50 others. If you have not read, or did not rate my essay The Cloud of Unknowing please consider doing so.

With best wishes from Vladimir

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Hugh Matlock wrote on Jul. 16, 2013 @ 17:38 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

You have offered an excellent presentation examining a fundamental question, and I am pleased that you defended the side of the monad! However, I think there may be different ways in which monads can be understood and would like to get your take on this.

One way to understand monads is as cells of a cellular automata, the kind of model for physics that Edward Fredkin has developed in his digital philosophy. In this case physics consists of determining the (local) rules that operate to change the state of the cells. An example of this kind of model is described by essayist Franklin Hu. Over the years Fredkin has been able to address several issues (such as circular propagation) that bedevil naive attempts at this kind of digital physics.

A second kind of monadic model associates them with particles and views particle interactions as a kind of computational network. This type is described by essayist Deepak Vaid.

And a third way to understand monads is as voxels (volumetric pixels). In this case the computational hardware is not observable; we can only see the display screen. Physics in this case can be any finite calculation that offers a discretized output. It need not be a local computation.

My own essay Software Cosmos takes a look at the third kind of computational model from the top down, considering what we can determine about the universe if we assume it is a kind of virtual reality. In fact, I am able to construct (and carry out) an observational test to determine if we currently live in a simulated world.

Hugh

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 18, 2013 @ 09:20 GMT
Dear Hugh,

Many thanks for your comments. I share the philosophy of digital physics with monads acting as cellular automata. However, it might be premature to say I am biased towards monads. As a matter of fact judgement will be delivered soon in the case of Atomistic Enterprises vs. Plato & Ors (probably August).

I will comment more on your blog.

Regards,

Akinbo




Vijay Mohan Gupta wrote on Jul. 17, 2013 @ 15:41 GMT
Great Akinbo,

This essay 'On the Road Not Taken' brings to fore some questions which have been kept under the carpet by science as no single answer is viable in all situations. Many of us have pondered over these questions. Some such questions that have baffled us include relativity, wave particle duality, pre-dominance of analogue or digital world etc.

PicoPhysics has no such paradox. Both concepts are embedded in UNARY law. Discrete is embedded in Knergy and Analogous behaviour in Space of Unary law "Space contains Knergy".

I do decipher the term monad. so went along the Wikipedia and see it is based on abstractions that prevailed before and around Newtonian era.

I see you have some original questions to answer similar to mine.

It was great, reading your article and find solace in knowing there are some people besides me, who have un-answered, un-asked questions.

Vijay Gupta

Proponent Unary Law - Space Contains Knergy

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Stephen James Anastasi wrote on Jul. 18, 2013 @ 07:01 GMT
Hello Akinbo

Speaking as an author of two books, I found it to be a beautiful piece of writing.

Your argument is fabulous, and I will be rating it as such (8) because it is foundational, and uses philosophical principles very well. In many ways your attributes of monads from i to vii align well to the fundamental interactions between boundary omnets in my model. I went very carefully...

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attachments: 1_A_problem_for_geometry.pdf

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Jul. 18, 2013 @ 08:59 GMT
Very brilliant arguments Stephen! I will have to re-read your paper. I also read the attachment and it is a very powerful counter-argument to Weyl's. Your argument may even provide a proof that the Planck limit (or some limit at least) exists at some scale and lines cannot be infinitely bisected. Will copy this on your blog and comment more later.

On "compressibility is a human-centered concept, and presumes a background space without showing how it comes to be". My response is that monads have extension but cannot be compressed or further extended. They have no shape. The only change they can undergo is annihilation in an instant, unlike composite things that can be compressed gradually. I will however be looking deeper into the Harmony set.

On "Whence time in your world model? What is the foundational cause of change?" I suspect that if monads can change spontaneously and can also be induced to do so, this may be the origin of determinism and uncertainty in our dynamics on the classical and quantum scale.

On "the shifting of an 0 from one place to another", I hope I understand you. The O in the diagram stands for object. It does not shift from one place to another. The object remains in its own place, which place property is intrinsic to it as Zeno's Arrow paradox envisages. Motion therefore occurs because space itself participates in it, with the monad in the direction of motion changing from 1 to 0 simultaneously as the "one (since this was non-existent)" opposite changes from 0 to 1. Such action and reaction between a moving object and space being equal and opposite.

We still have to continue this dialogue because the issues you raise are quite fundamentally important. This reply cannot exhaust all the concerns.

Many thanks indeed.

Akinbo




Thomas Howard Ray wrote on Jul. 18, 2013 @ 14:30 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

You must have had a hard time in your youth deciding whether to be a philosopher, lawyer, physicist or physician. :-) I hope you agree by now that the world is most in need of caring physicians.

Your intellectual journey down the fork less traveled (Frost is my favorite poet; "The Road not Taken" may have been the first poem I learned by heart many years ago) is rich with promise. One doesn't hear of Leibniz's monads that often anymore -- I do recall Hermann Weyl's agreement with Leibniz that nature can only be truly understood in the behavior of the very small, so you're in good company.

I would make a note that the mathematical point at infinity is actually realized in the compactification of the complex plane, which shifts the discrete and probabilistic measure functions of the complex Hilbert space to the continuous and deterministic functions of a topological model. You might want to look into that to help further strengthen your argument.

Something else that caught my eye in regard to Newton's idea of spatial translation: " ... unless we postulate that there are two spaces that everywhere coincide, a moving one and one that is at rest, so that the movement of a part of the moving one involves a translation of that item from the corresponding part of the resting one to a different part of the resting space ... That is crazy (translator's inclusion) ... " I have to disagree with the translator's editorializing -- Newton's conception is not crazy; it follows directly from his belief in absolute space and absolute time. The duality is necessary -- which Einstein fixed, with Minkowski's model of continuous spacetime, in which neither space nor time are independently real, but rather preserve physical reality in a union of the two.

Thanks for your comments in my forum, and expect an appropriately high score from me.

All best,

Tom

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Patrick Tonin wrote on Jul. 18, 2013 @ 15:16 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

I have answered some of your questions in my blog

Cheers,

Patrick

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Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 04:02 GMT
Greetings Akinbo,

I want to take a moment in this e-mail to address the key question you left me in a general way, here rather than on my forum. I've still not made it through your essay, but your intriguing and delightful questions bear some attention, and have been unavoidably a part of my contemplations of late. I'll talk here about learning how to count and measure. This is a key...

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 18:29 GMT
Akinbo My Friend,

I want you to understand me rightly, and out of respect I am posting it here. While I acknowledge that sometimes life reduces chices down to either/or decisions, the tendency to assume this applies more generally is a harmful logical flaw prevalent in modern society, because it fails to ask "Is there a middle path?" In more detail; sometimes the middle is excluded...

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 19:10 GMT
As you might imagine, ...

That should be 'sometimes life reduces choices.' I'm sorry for any confusion.

Jonathan

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John C Maguire wrote on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 13:53 GMT
Akinbo,

Thank you for a great submission. Very well structured/readable. Interesting parallel between 1,0 and what I understood to be Monad Pairs (?). I think the idea that space substrate itself could be a giant Boolean Network of Monads is a model that may prove to be fruitful. Correct me if I'm a bit off here.

I also responded to your questions under my submission if you care to take a look @ that as well.

All the Best,

John

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Sreenath B N wrote on Jul. 19, 2013 @ 18:47 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

You have made the relationship between It and Bit quite explicit in your elegantly argued essay and finally have said that both are from each other and hence of equal importance for us. This is also what I have said in my essay while concluding. You have logically based your argument on the concept of ‘monad’ as fundamental indivisible entity and listed some of its attributes and also have identified it and its attributes with both It and Bit. You have historically analyzed the origin and development of the concept of monad and its current application to contemporary problems in physics and successfully explained the notion of motion with the help of diagrams. It is good to note that there are 10^180 bits of information in the universe derived from the concept of monad. I would like to rate your lucid essay with an excellent rating after you read my essay and post your comments on it in my thread. http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1827.

Best regards,

Sreenath

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Yuri Danoyan wrote on Jul. 20, 2013 @ 13:40 GMT
Dear Akinbo

I rated your essay july 11 5 grade.

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adel sadeq wrote on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 04:14 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

Thank you for reading my essay. While it is hard to tell what you precisely have in mind( I have read yours many times), there seems to be some similarity between our theories in a specific area which is particle propagation. My theory follows standard QM which does not have easy interpretation in that regard. However, I am researching this issue in my system which seems to...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 09:36 GMT
Dear Adel,

Thanks for your comments. Also thanks for the referral to Feynman's checkerboard model. It appears to be a way to quantize spacetime. I will meet you in a few minutes on your blog.

Regards,

Akinbo




Steven P Sax wrote on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 05:45 GMT
Dear Dr. Ojo,

Your essay offers a very fascinating approach to information and fundamental reality. As I mentioned in reply to your interesting questions on my page, I like discussions about monads and infinities, and think these to be very fundamental. Although the infinitesimal and the infinite may seem as opposites, that in fact really links them. I also very much enjoyed the poetry...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 09:51 GMT
Thanks Steve for your encouraging comments. I doubt if I will be able to lay my hands on Lee Smolins book soon but I have read a couple of his papers which I found very good. Like the 'Three Roads to Quantum Gravity'.

Wheelers viewpoint that information is fundamental and that we only need to consider all the various binary possibilities underlying reality is very inspiring. Infinitessimal and the infinite may be examples of this, but I suspect that they will be mathematical 'bits', not physical. The infinitesimal could confront Planck's length in the near future.

I will check your blog again to see if I have rated your essay.

Regards,

Akinbo




Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 10:07 GMT
TAKE NOTICE that judgement will be delivered on Sunday, July 28 at 12 O'clock in the forenoon in the case of

Atomistic Enterprises Inc. vs. Plato & Ors.

As you deem fit or otherwise, you are therefore invited to make your pleadings/RATINGS for or against any of both parties in the case.

THANK YOU!!




Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 13:03 GMT
Hello again Akinbo,

I wanted to mention a few things. First off; as with Tom, Frost's 'The Road Not Taken' is one of my favorite poems and I also like the musical arrangement by Randall Thompson, which I have performed many times. And secondly; I told a story above of attending a lecture by Alfie Kohn, where he told the story of children learning to measure through guided play.

Though that evening was the first time I ever went to the James Earl Jones theater, and I was not certain exactly where to go, but for the most part I did not travel by the road. I went through the woods (not yellow, but...). There is a road in the woods too, that once carried horse-drawn carriages. To be honest, I took the road the last part of the way, but not the whole distance.

At the same event where I met 't Hooft, there was a lecture by Marni Sheppeard about the value of Ternary logic in QM - which of course sends us down the middle path sometimes. Right now I am sad, because Marni (Kea in the blogs) is struggling - but she is brilliant! So every once and a while; I wish those was a victory for those who travel the untrammeled road, walk the middle path, or insist that it is best to consider the third option.

Regards,

Jonathan

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 21, 2013 @ 18:09 GMT
Thanks Jonathan. You will likely not be disappointed with the decision of the court next sunday (in preparation). I cant find Marni's essay.

All the best



Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 23, 2013 @ 04:35 GMT
Sorry my friend..

Marni was a participant in the very first FQXi contest and said; never again. I met her at FFP10, the same conference where I talked to Gerard. Let me just say that she is a brilliant physicist, and her PhD advisor was John Baez, but Kea has not found her niche, and no Physics related positions appear to be available to her right now. This is very sad, and a loss for the community, in my opinion. You can find some of her papers on viXra, if you are interested.

I have answers to the questions you left for me, and I'll try to enter them on my page tonight or in the AM.

All the Best,

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 23, 2013 @ 05:41 GMT
Your answers are there, Akinbo.

You can find them on my essay page. Thank you for your kind interaction.

Have Fun!

Jonathan

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Brian L Ji wrote on Jul. 22, 2013 @ 02:58 GMT
Akinbo,

Very nice article. I read it with great interest and ranked it accordingly. For writing your program with monads, your may find the following invention of magnetic racetrack memory to be interesting, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racetrack_memory

Best wishes,

Brian

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Jayakar Johnson Joseph wrote on Jul. 23, 2013 @ 10:06 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Very good realistic argument on the topic.

I think monads have extensive applicability to integrate discrete with continuum. For example, natural transformation of strong monads may express the gravitation as a tensor product in string-matter continuum scenario, while three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral-branes emerge on eigen-rotations of string-matter segments. In that, to define the unit of mass we have to adapt Planck length as the length of fundamental string-segment that may be a monad in this continuum scenario that ascribes an eternal universe.

With best wishes

Jayakar

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Israel Perez wrote on Jul. 24, 2013 @ 07:06 GMT
Dear Akinbo

I'm sorry I couldn't comment on your essay before. My duties at work demand considerable time. I found the topics of your work very interesting, I'm glad you had called my attention to your work. The notion of space is still one of the most debated in both physics and the philosophy of physics. From the ontological point of view, there are many conceptions of space. There is more less a wide consensus that space is either a substance or a mesh of relationships of objects. One can spend a lot of time discussing this two apparently irreconcilable viewpoints but at the end what matters for theoretical physics is to give a mathematical and consistent formulation of space.

I don't follow the current view of space represented by non-Euclidean geometry. Rather I upheld the view that space is a substance, a material field. In order to make this view consistent, the key is reconceptualize the notion of particle in terms of the notion of quasiparticle or solitons. In my view space is like an ocean and particles are only excitations of the ocean. This ocean is the medium for the quasiparticles and electromagnetic fields to move and interact. From this ocean quasiparticles are created and so on. The theory assumes that space is a continuous fluid in the sense of Descartes aether.

You may wish to see this video so you have an idea of what a particle is in my view.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PyjwZ39EDmw

I wish you good luck in the contest

Best Regards

Israel

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Michel Planat wrote on Jul. 25, 2013 @ 15:04 GMT
Dear Akimbo,

First thank you for your kind interest. This post is a tentative response to your question having in mind your very pedagogical essay about monads.

You: Monad – a fundamental unit of geometry; that of which there is no part;...

i. extended objects, not further extensible or compressible.

ii. they are fundamental and not a composite of other...

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Than Tin wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 03:01 GMT
Dear Akinbo

Richard Feynman in his Nobel Acceptance Speech

(http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/19
65/feynman-lecture.html)

said: “It always seems odd to me that the fundamental laws of physics, when discovered, can appear in so many different forms that are not apparently identical at first, but with a little mathematical fiddling you can show the...

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Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 04:03 GMT
Greetings my friend,

In relation to the Scientific American article by Meinard Kuhlmann cited above, and the existence or non-existence of particles; look up the Unruh effect.

Also; in relation to your comments left on my blog, about questioning the need to have a proliferation of names (like a 0-brane) or constructions for what is basically the same thing - a monad - please see the comment by Than Tin above, with the sentiments of Richard Feynman on that subject.

Back with essay comments soon.

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 06:54 GMT
I'll recap a more detailed statement left on my page..

I see no problem with multiple constructions that yield something like a monad. I mentioned the 0-brane as it is a minimal figure - infinitesimal or Planck scaled at rest. The construction Greene used in Elegant Universe was that branes could be seen as something that wraps around another geometric structure, like a balloon (a 2-brane) around a ball or sphere, or a string (a 1-brane) around a circle or disc. The idea is that is contains what is inside, perhaps renders it invisible or prevents direct observation, or covers the object contained. And of course the surface can oscillate or vibrate while doing so.

If we note that spheres and circles are part of the same family and share the same formula, the original point can be made clear. The equation of a unit sphere is simply r = 1, and a sphere of a given dimension is called an n-sphere, where n is 1,2,3,... The conventional sphere is called the 2-sphere, and the 1-sphere is a circle. But a brane of a given dimension is a generalization of the associated sphere. So this reveals that the 0-brane is actually a pair of points. In the 1 + 1 dimensional space that the 0-brane is said to inhabit or define, it is usually assigned the role of instanton, having no extent in space but holding a Planck sized instant of time.

Of course String theorists like putting a charge on 0-branes and making them dance, but perhaps a resting 0-brane is a sort of monad.

More soon,

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 07:00 GMT
And my main message is..

I see having more than one road to the same end as powerful evidence there is something worth seeing there. I don't think the monad is any different. If it is found essential in a new setting or in a new way, that is good. I posted the whole paragraph from Feynman that Than Tin excerpted, that eloquently makes my point, back on my essay page. And you can read the comment from me I'm struggling to recap there.

Have Fun,

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 05:14 GMT
My friend,

You make a most excellent case for revisiting the monad concept, and some wonderful things about the primal or foundational aspect of geometry. I concur whole heartedly with the assessment that it is a determine of how form in nature unfolds; ultimately the higher- and lower-dimensional aspects of geometry both enter the picture - in terms of framing what is possible. My approach to this research involves examining object/observer relations through elements of constructive geometry evolving into projective geometry (which studies perspective). It turns out there are some interesting connections with the octonions and other expected features, if you follow the thread out from minimal rules of constructivism through the projective doorway.

Fun stuff!

But on the downside; physicists have not observed any clear signs of graininess to the fabric of space, although there have been some attempts to elicit such information from astrophysical data and elsewhere. Lots more on that. And you should also know that your model has aspects of a Cellular Automaton or CA, which might lead to problems. The main subject of my conversation with Gerard 't Hooft was whether his CA based QG theory was or could be made Lorentz invariant. In our conversation at FFP10 he said this was very difficult. Then in his lecture at FFP11 in Paris, he devoted 4 or 5 slides to the subject and why Lorentz invariance is a difficult matter for CA based theories.

More later,

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 05:20 GMT
Gee whiz..

that should be 'and other unexpected features' in the 1st paragraph above.

Jonathan

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Jonathan J. Dickau replied on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 05:28 GMT
I also want to mention..

In Twistor theory, points are NOT the most fundamental piece of geometry. Instead it is the ray. I imagine the shortest that a ray of light can be is the Planck length, you might want to check out the Twistors program for some interesting insights to explore.

Have Fun!

Jonathan

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 09:59 GMT
Hello Than and Jonathan,

I will posting on your blogs what I feel can throw more light on the scheme at hand. And thanks for all the information and references. I will be checking them out.

Regards,

Akinbo




Don Limuti wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 14:50 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

I just upped the score on your underrated essay.

Point particles are a problem, and physics is crippled until it gets rid of them. Standard physics responds with do not worry about point particles, calculus handles them just fine, and in fact it gets rid of the logic of that goof off Zeno. The problem as you know is that particles are not points and calculus does not get rid of Zeno paradox. We are stuck with Zeno's conclusion that nothing can move. That is the truth, but it is not a show stopper. Remember the show must go on!

So, I started my "monad" logic with Zeno's statement that I interpret as "no quantum mechanical object can have a velocity in a space-time that is continuous". Since everything is composed of quantum mechanical particles, all quantum particles and all classical objects cannot move. How can that be?

The answer is that Zeno left out a detail that should have been included. Zeno's statement should read: "Nothing moves, everything changes". There is no such thing as velocity outside of calculations we make on a changing space-time.

You are not alone :)

Best of Luck,

Don L.

PS thanks of the history of monads

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 19:15 GMT
Dear Don,

Your comments are treasured. Yes, I agree Zeno left out a detail. What is that detail? I will post this on your blog and give my suggestion what I think that detail could be. And thanks for the rating.

Best regards,

Akinbo




Member Giacomo Mauro D\'Ariano wrote on Jul. 26, 2013 @ 15:11 GMT
Dear Akinibo

thank you for your nice essay, refreshing my high school knowledge about monads. Maybe your monads are the qubits of my quantum cellular automaton, though they have no extension literally, since space-time is emergent from them: but in this sense, they then acquire a Planck extension.

Coming back to your problem raised in by essay thread about the Mach principle and the Newton bucket, here I report my answer from my thread.

You are touching the apocryphal principle of Mach, which Einstein was so fond of, but, unfortunately he couldn't achieve in his GR. Its space-time metric played the role of a kind of ether. In his Lecture in Leiden he said that he believed that the rotating Newton bucket would have the water pushing up the bucket walls, even in an empty universe (see the masterpiece Einstein's biography of Walter Isaacson). Do we have the absolute inertial frame, or even the rest frame, as an ether? In practice we have an ether: it is the background radiation. It is a frame with respect to which we can check that we are moving. And, in practice, we define the inertial frame only relying on fixed stars. In an emergent space-time from an automaton Lorenz covariance is distorted, meaning that the principle of relativity does not hold in a ultra-relativistic regime.

I will post this also on your blog, as you asked me.

Thank you for raising the issue.

My best regards

Mauro

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Georgina Woodward wrote on Jul. 27, 2013 @ 02:29 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I read your fine essay some time ago but could not think of any intelligent comment or question that would do it justice. I was hoping to do better than very well written, exceptionally clearly explained and relevant.It was interesting for me to learn about monads. Anyway for now I want to let you know I have read it and think you deserve to do well. Good luck, Georgina

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sridattadev kancharla wrote on Jul. 27, 2013 @ 13:16 GMT
Dear Akinbo and all,

Thank you for posting in my essay. Here is some work I am doing to achieve what you are trying to do as well.

Simple mathematical truth of zero=I=infinity, iSphere and iSeries as described below can explain all the aspects of reality mathematically.

I am attaching the iDNASeries.bmp that I have envisioned and how it shows the DNA structure in its...

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sridattadev kancharla replied on Jul. 27, 2013 @ 13:24 GMT
Please see the attached image.

Love,

Sridattadev.

attachments: 11_iDNASeries.bmp

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Douglas Alexander Singleton wrote on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 01:48 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

I had a glance over your essay and the basic idea is that one should instead of idealized points consider "extended points" or monads. Is this correct? This idea seems to have some connection with the idea that there will be some smallest size one can probe (e.g. Planck size) and beyond this it is impossible to go to smaller distances. In some sense that there is a smallest unit of space-time. This is an idea which has received some attention. A colleague and friend of mine Piero Nicolini and co-workers have been looking at non-commutative geometry -- the postulate that just as in QM one has non-trivial commutators between x and p

([x, p] =/=0) so too there is some new non-trivial commutator between coordinates x, y, z for example [x, y] =/=0). The implication of this is that one can't simultaneously take x and y to zero (just as one can't simultaneously take x and p to zero in QM) or in other words one can't shrink things to a point. He has a nice review article of these ideas:

"Noncommutative Black Holes, The Final Appeal To Quantum Gravity: A Review"

Piero Nicolini (Trieste U. & INFN, Trieste & Fresno State),

Int.J.Mod.Phys. A24 (2009) 1229-1308; e-Print: arXiv:0807.1939 [hep-th]

In any case this seems to have some connection to the idea of monads.

Best,

Doug

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:28 GMT
Thanks Doug for your look in. I will check the references you mentioned. I understand Wheeler also used the term in one of his papers. Take a look at the judgement to follow.

Best regards,

Akinbo




Chenxi Guo wrote on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 09:07 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I think this is a triditional philosophical essay. But it's pity,frankly speeking, I am afraid of I have not get your points. Still,it deserves a good rating.

Good luck,

Chenxi

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:31 GMT
Hi Chenxi,

Thanks for looking in all the same.

Best regards,

Akinbo




Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:39 GMT
THE JUDGEMENT

In the case of Atomistic Enterprises Inc. vs. Plato & Ors, this honorable court wishes to commend FQXi for providing and maintaining courtroom 1764 for the proceedings.

In deciding this case, the court is pleased that both counsel founded their arguments on geometry, in keeping with the late Hon. Judge Galileo's admonition that in constitutional conflicts,...

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Gordon Watson replied on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 08:04 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Good to see you continuing in your wonderful way with words and logic.

I look forward to further developments (especially to join in the viXra.org dialogues and submissions).

With best regards; Gordon.

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basudeba mishra wrote on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 12:26 GMT
Dear Sir,

This is our post to Dr. Wiliam Mc Harris in his thread. We thought it may be of interest to you.

Mathematics is the science of accumulation and reduction of similars or partly similars. The former is linear and the later non-linear. Because of the high degree of interdependence and interconnectedness, it is no surprise that everything in the Universe is mostly non-linear....

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Ralph Waldo Walker III wrote on Jul. 29, 2013 @ 19:43 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I am SO sorry that I didn't read your essay until just now, but I am nevertheless glad that I eventually did. Wow. I think both your writing style and approach are brilliant. And, as an attorney, I loved the manner in which you handled your concluding remarks (and wondering why I didn't think of doing it that way).

I think you are absolutely correct - that 'it derives from bit' and 'bit derives from it.' The universe contains both 'hardware' and 'software.' Hardware without software is just a fancy pile of parts; software without hardware is just a fancy pile of instructions. Not only does each require the other in order to 'function' - each is needed to help create the other as well.

Although I missed the 'jury vote' prior to the judgment that was rendered, I am glad I didn't miss the deadline on rating your well-reasoned essay, which I think deserves very high marks.

Perhaps, if you are so inclined, we can continue to correspond in the future.

Best to you,

Ralph

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 30, 2013 @ 08:43 GMT
Dear Ralph,

Thanks for your comments. I will reply on your blog. Perhaps, you may find grounds for appealing the judgement :)?

All the best,

Akinbo




Ken Hon Seto wrote on Jul. 30, 2013 @ 03:30 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I read you interesting essay and I gave it a very high rating of 9.

Hope you will read my essay and give it a rating.

Regards,

Ken

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KoGuan Leo wrote on Jul. 30, 2013 @ 07:43 GMT
Dear Akindo,

Fascinating essay that covers the history of zero point and Monad.

KQID does use as you explained below as Wheeler's "geometrodynamics" in the firm of in stein complex coordinates( Pythagoras numbers and Fu Xi's trigrams) that are computed and projected by the Monad bit into ψτ(iLx,y,z, Lm) relative holographic Multiverse.

"b). Use as 'bits'. Wheeler was in the forefront of a grand scheme to reduce physics to geometry. This he called 'geometrodynamics'.It was his dream to obtain mass from the massless, charge from the chargeless and field from the fieldless. To him, "what else is there out of which to build a particle except geometry itself?". If we follow Wheeler along this road, we infer that 'it' is from 'geometry'. A literal interpretation of the same Wheeler's 'it from bit' is then that 'geometry' and 'bit' must be strongly related, if not same."

KQID agrees that bit = it, thus, both it from bit and bit from it as the same thing. You wrote below:

"Plato: Your honor, all is geometry. From the dialectic of counsel for Atomistic Enterprises Inc., monads are 'it' and their change between two alternate states is the 'bit'. Thus, 'it' is from 'bit' and 'bit' is also from 'it'."

Excellent!

Best wishes,

Leo KoGuan

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KoGuan Leo replied on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 01:22 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I answered one of your fundamental question if the beginning of the big bang or KQID bit bang is bit or it. See my reply to Michel in my blog.

Good Luck,

Leo KoGuan

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Michel Planat wrote on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 12:27 GMT
Dear Akimbo,

You still did not react to my (possibly) imperfect understanding of your monads.

Let me know your view.

Then you will suffer my very good rate of your essay.

Kind regards,

Michel

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Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga wrote on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 13:43 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

thanks for your words. Yes my intention is to uncover the geometric origin of matter. In particular, I try to obtain it from simple assumptions like the use of exotic smoothness structures.

Unfortunately, I had only time to skim over your essay. There are parallels to my view and I'm glad that you notice it. I have to read it more carefully because it is more philosphically.

Best wishes

Torsten

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 15:00 GMT
Thank you.

Following additional insights gained from interacting with FQXi community members, perhaps you may wish to view the judgement in the case of Atomistic Enterprises Inc. vs. Plato & Ors delivered on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:39 GMT on this blog.




Manuel S Morales wrote on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 15:58 GMT
Akinbo,

I found your your approach to the topic at hand fascinating and would like to rate your essay highly. However, before I do may I run some questions by you via email? Please let me know at: msm@physicsofdestiny.com

I look forward to hearing from you.

Regards,

Manuel

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 09:32 GMT
Hello Manuel,

I recall I was one of the first to acknowledge your nice essay and rated as well without any preconditions.

Thanks and best regards,

Akinbo




Anonymous wrote on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 16:22 GMT
Akinbo,

As I pointed out in my response on my thread, you raise far more issues than can be easily answered.

The ancient Romans are castigated for not having a zero in their number system, yet they were a notoriously practical minded people and given that zero creates more problems that it easily solves, they may have left it out on purpose, like that relative one deals with as...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 18:41 GMT
Hello John,

Thanks for commenting. A quick response...

John: On "theoretically" cutting a monad in half and an appeal to authority

Reply: You may be right but what authority will you also be relying on that it was possible? I think these are the sort of things that have to be resolved by the reduction ad absurdum type arguments since no experiment can say for certain. Zeno's Dichotomy argument is an example in that a runner getting to destination is certain but what will that step be, as there must surely have been one. So running steps could not have been infinitely cut in half from observation of completed races.

John: in order to have size, it must have boundaries, which requires structure and definition smaller than the proposed unit

Reply: Not necessarily. Indeed, because of this difficulty it is the monad's "lifetime" that serves as the boundary, not a geometric object. Otherwise, geometrically space is continuous.

John: As for something and nothing, they are not the computational 1 and 0. In order to measure anything, even nothing, you need something to measure/detect whether it does, or doesn't exist. So actually it is 1 and 2. The detector silent and the detector ringing.

Reply: I think you may be confusing what is doing the measuring with what is being measured?

John: empty space. It is not a singularity or bound in any way, because it is nothing. Being nothing, it cannot move, therefore it is inert

Reply: See the Judgement in the case of Atomistic Enterprises Inc. vs. Plato & Ors delivered on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:39 GMT on this blog which is the outcome of insights gained from exchanges with other community members.

John: Centrifugal force is another example of the inertia of space,

If motion is entirely relative, then why would an object in an otherwise empty frame ever have measurable spin?

Reply: Agreed. Again see the judgement.

Best regards and thanks.

Akinbo



John Brodix Merryman replied on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 23:17 GMT
Akinbo,

While I still disagree, I wish I'd given you more than the seven I did, on presentation alone.

You will have to go back and read my essay to get the context, but I do see the "energy" as necessarily foundational to the "information," since information changes while energy is conserved. To me, the "bit" amounts to the "peak" of a wave. It rises to the level of signal, above...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 08:55 GMT
Dear John,

Thanks for your engagement. I will go back and read your entry in past contest. Between extension, energy and time I think extension is the easiest to apprehend. It also appears more fundamental in that we can contemplate extension without energy but we cant contemplate energy without extension being present. Time also appears to be interwoven with extension, appears one cannot do without the other. Whatever, I will check on those references as soon as I get the time.

Best regards,

Akinbo




William Amos Carine wrote on Jul. 31, 2013 @ 17:21 GMT
Hi Akinbo,

Can you give a conceptual meaning of the use on infinity in renormalization? The link between infinity and energy is not clear to me. Also, you say "A line having the width and thickness of Planck dimension, cannot divide space infinitely." Where infinite division is at hand, can getting as close to possible to the infinite dividing reaches be useful mathematically? I would think that here since the monad has a role in the real world, this nearing of the infinite would also have some physical significance.

It is really nice to see geometry and philosophy-like ideas discussed in a science pap. I think this is what the time needs right now. The complexities of theory today keep many genius minds at bay. I did not know Wheeler's geometrical nature in his work, and this motivates me to learn more about him. I know nothing of his. What's the other side of the plank scale from the view of the Extended Point Highway? You know, the one that isn't well known to us. Many physicists are looking form smaller discrete parts 'lower' than Planck distance, but I think the general behavior around that scale is more important than the particulars at the moment. I am unsure what the view based on nomads would have to say, if anything at all.

This essay followed the discussion points of the contest very closely, and was made interesting with the invocation of the Muses...

Sincerely,

Amos.

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Jacek Safuta wrote on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 12:41 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Judge: What of extended points?

Jacek: Your honor, I agree that all is geometry. It is not easy to abandon the idea of a universe made of matter and embrace the vision of a reality made of a pure (conformally flat, isotropic, elastic, homeomorphic and self-organized) spacetime. We shall be looking for that one, universal, distance scale invariant metric (eventually reducing to Einstein GR metric within Solar System distance scale) and having ability to generate predictions. The first prediction of that geometrization concept is the spin experiment outcome. Depending on the outcome we shall look for a proper metric or give up.

Judge: The hearing is suspended until the spin experiment is carried out!

-------

You are absolutely right that we seem to have been led along the wrong road. I do not mean that I agree with you in 100%. E.g. I would exchange your extended points for wavepackets (spacetime deformations) as fundamental objects of geometry. This is not the same in details but they are also extended objects. That is a way to reduce physics to geometry.

I like your approach and I think that philosophy is very important to understand the reality (for teaching purposes) but in my opinion it is not enough to prove anything (for judgment) in the field of physics. My experiment is not described in the essay (my fault as I had a lot of place). It is the best to read full description here: http://vixra.org/abs/1304.0027

We differ in some issues but I think your essay deserves the high rating!

Best regards,

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 18:41 GMT
Dear Jacek,

Many thanks for your comments. An initial brief response...

Jacek: I would exchange your extended points for wavepackets (spacetime deformations) as fundamental objects of geometry.

Judge: Wouldn't you then agree that what can be deformed must have some structure? And if it does, will this be composite or not? Then is your conception of space, relational or substantival? This answer will allow your further cross-examination :)

Regards,

Akinbo

*Rate me if you can acquit yourself of the charges!

Best



Jacek Safuta replied on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 19:32 GMT
Judge: Wouldn't you then agree that what can be deformed must have some structure? And if it does, will this be composite or not? Then is your conception of space, relational or substantival? This answer will allow your further cross-examination :)

Jacek: The spacetime is continuous, conformally flat, isotropic, ELASTIC, homeomorphic and self-organized. If composite means: made up of distinct components - there is only one component - the spacetime itself. If substantival means: not imaginary, actual, real than YES. Please proceed the further examination.

I have rated your essay long time ago and very high as your essay is very well written and accessible and as you have shown it has potential.

Best regards,

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 2, 2013 @ 13:15 GMT
Judge: Well then, at the moment I will not take you up on technical terms like homeomorphic, conformally flat, isotropic, etc.

First, I put it to you that your testimony that spacetime is continuous (i.e. relational) is conflicting by definition with testimony that it is "not imaginary, actual, real", (i.e. spacetime is substantival).

Second, if you say it is actual and real...

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Lawrence B Crowell wrote on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 13:26 GMT
Akinbo,

As Yogi Berra put it, “When you reach a fork in the road, take it.” The point, line, etc are just model systems from a physicist’s perspective. One uses them in a way that is appropriate to the problem at hand. What mathematics means in of itself and its bearing on physics is a subject that many people have pondered and written about. This extends to ideas about mathematical realism, which is a variant of Platonism, and Brower’s constructivism that considers mathematics as largely just a mental model set.

There is a monad aspect to things. I think elementary particles are just projections of a single eigenstate into different configuration variables. This means there is only one electron in the universe, and the vast number of them around us are just holographic projects of that single particle state.

Cheers LC

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 18:47 GMT
Dear Lawrence,

Thanks for commenting. Are you by chance saying the electron in your body is the same as the one in mine?

If mathematical objects and models have served us well although leaving us with paradoxes and infinities requiring renormalization dont you think physicists should then develop own physical models?

Many thanks. Any rating to be expected. By the way are your views of space relational or substantival?

Best regards LC,

Akinbo




Paul Reed wrote on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 16:42 GMT
Akinbo

You asked me, again to look at your essay.

Overall, I do not understand what you are trying to convey, and your assumptions about the generic physical circumstance are incorrect.

There is no ‘it’ as such, other than in the sense that ultimately physical existence/reality must comprise of something (or various types of something). A reality, ie what exists at any...

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Aug. 1, 2013 @ 18:56 GMT
Thanks Paul for accepting my invite. Your idea of "no duration, no motion, no change of any degree whatsoever in a reality" reminds of the ideas of Parmenides and his student Zeno, who further went ahead to put forward his popular paradoxes. I think instead of being frustrated that there is no motion or change the challenge is to see how this gives us the illusion, (if you may call it that) that those events are occurring. Pondering whether there is a first smallest step in motion in Zeno's Dichotomy argument may make us possibly reach some understanding.

Best regards,

Akinbo

*Obviouslsy I am to be rated low :(



Paul Reed replied on Aug. 2, 2013 @ 07:03 GMT
Akinbo

I am not bothered who else said this. It is a fact, that is how, generically, the physical existence we know must occur.

Now, you raise the right question, but it is not a challenge, it is very easy to explain. Well, generically anyway (as per my essay). How this actually manifests in our existence is very difficult to establish, and that is what physics is supposed to be...

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 09:28 GMT
In summary what you say boils down to:

"sequence", …" existent state at a time", "the predecessor must cease to exist so that the successor can exist", "From one point in time to the next it is not the same" VS. "there is no degree of alteration within a reality".

Thanks Paul for expressing your position. Appreciated.

Regards,

Akinbo




Cristinel Stoica wrote on Aug. 2, 2013 @ 06:42 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

You wrote an intriguing and compelling essay about monads. In the quest for understanding the universe, we are all beginners, and it is great that from time to time curious minds follow roads not taken.

Best regards,

Cristi

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 09:37 GMT
Dear Cristi,

Thanks for your kind encouragement on this lonely road. As I informed on your blog and stated in the judgement above, there actually seems to be a bridge linking the roads, which I have called, "Wheeler's Bridge". In summary, Points and Monads are the binary states that space can occupy. Look forward to more cooperation in future.

Best regards,

Akinbo.




Peter Jackson wrote on Aug. 2, 2013 @ 16:16 GMT
Akinbo,

You missed my response and question (below June 8th post) above ref Dark Matter and the erroneous assumption it can't be baryonic. Saw you on the cusp, and the good news is that I hadn't addressed your points. Situation now remedied. I trust you'll double check too.

Thanks, and very best wishes for the final cut.

Peter

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Chidi Idika wrote on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 04:08 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Good to be home! I like your classic approach.

You ask: “in a very fundamental discussion, what information will be "occupying the ontological basement"”?

I say it is in any system of events the OBSERVER proper as signifying the “virtual exchange” of standard model or “space-time” of general relativity. Thus to realize Wheeler’s participatory universe we must assume that the universal computer or algorithm proper is ANY DE FACTO OBSERVER as the “configuration space” of all matter/bits and what is better known in QM as the matter wave (wave function).

My “observer” is in other words the thing we call individually “mind” or biologically “life” and physically “energy" (or generally a “conservation law”).

Thank you for your engaging essay.

Regards,

Chidi

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 09:40 GMT
Thanks Chidi for looking through my window!

Best regards,

Akinbo




Cristinel Stoica wrote on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 06:32 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I hope the comment I wrote here, and lost during changing the server, will be restored. If not, I will try to make another one.

Best regards,

Cristi Stoica

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Daryl Janzen wrote on Aug. 3, 2013 @ 23:16 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

Thanks very much for reading and commenting on my essay. Sorry it took so long to reply, but I've finally managed to read your essay. I thought your analysis of monads was very interesting, and I really liked the way you handled your discussion of historical philosophical views on the topic. I think it's really important that anyone who stands on the shoulders of these giants should know what they were actually thinking and how they arrived at their ideas, since textbooks often either misrepresent things, or just leave out the original reasoning entirely.

Regarding your question about existence/non-existence as a binary choice, I think our views are very different on that point, although I can appreciate what you're going for. It's just that I do think a continual passage of time is fundamental, and prior to any particular thing existing. I can think of a three-dimensional set of monads existing, like the "one-dimensional" set you've drawn at different stages in the two figures in your essay, but I can't think of those two instants if the monads don't exist. And in order for objective time to pass uniformly throughout the Universe, which is what I've argued for in my essay despite relative proper duration, etc., I don't think random discrete particle creation and annihilation in the Universe could be the cause of this uniform absolute duration.

That's why I think 'it from bit' has to fail, despite the possibility that bits (monads) are the fundamental building blocks of everything in the Universe. But I'm no stick in the mud, and as I said I can appreciate your position, and I enjoyed your essay. You have my vote!

Best of luck in the contest,

Daryl

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 10:02 GMT
Thanks Daryl for your frank comments. "Time" and "Space" are indeed enigmas yet to be fully subdued. I guess that is why most FQXi essay contests focus mainly on these two, or even as some hold a union of both.

Your position that "…a continual passage of time is fundamental, and prior to any particular thing existing" is understood, although it comes with its own baggage. For how long then was there non-existence before existence? How can this be ascertained in that who is keeping the time in the realm of non-existence since such a realm where time runs must exist? And from that last sentence can a situation where time runs be said not to exist? These I believe are questions to be argued by dialectic and not by equations so I understand that until those arguments are comprehensively done and resolved one way or the other to absurdity, those who harbor views like yours must be allowed to EXIST! This I fully support.

I think the question whether time is digital or analogue, continuous or discrete or a simulation of both is the fundamental issue. As I have proposed, the nature of space is both continuous and discrete. You may also view the Judgement above.

Accept my best regards,

Akinbo



Daryl Janzen replied on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 18:08 GMT
Ah, I see that I was to careless with words. When I type "prior" into dictionary.com, I get two definitions of the adjectival sense:

1. preceding in time or in order; earlier or former; previous

2. preceding in importance or privilege.

I meant the second one. Sorry for the confusion. No, I don't think a continual passage of time took place before anything existed. I just think continual passage has to be a prior if things are to exist, and not the other way around, which I find incoherent; i.e., I just can't make sense of the position that time passes because things exist.

I do accept your best regards, and I hope you accept mine, too! I appreciate your insight and your willingness to discuss these important things.

All the best,

Daryl

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Paul Borrill wrote on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 01:52 GMT
Akinbo - an interesting essay, but a little too philosophical for my tastes. However, I did appreciate your extended discussion of monads, which I think certainly shows some unique insight.

Good look in the contest.

Kind regards, Paul

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 10:15 GMT
Dear Paul,

Thanks for looking in and sorry for the philosophical taste of the essay. The essay topic I think can only be resolved by argument and not by mathematical equations per se. For instance can you give the mathematical equation for 'it' or that for 'bit'? The essay is an attempt to rise to Wheeler's challenge that "…space-time derives its very existence entirely - from …binary choices, bits". If that were so, what are the binary choices from which space can derive its meaning? I doubt if these can be determined by mathematical equations.

So apologies for the philosophical content. Perhaps the Judgement that followed on this blog may have more relevance to today's physics (see Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:39 GMT). You may view.

Best regards,

Akinbo



Paul Borrill replied on Aug. 7, 2013 @ 05:11 GMT
Akinbo - no need to apologize. This is my bias, not your problem. At a fundamental level, I believe that we make better progress when all the disciplines are first class citizens in the conversation.

Kind regards, Paul

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Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet wrote on Aug. 4, 2013 @ 22:00 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

I found your essay an interesting read and I have rated it accordingly.

Some comments:

1) On page 6 you write that monads can exist in two states, which you refer to by the numbers 0 and 1. I understand what you want to say, but the 0 designates nothingness resulting from the monad's annihilation. So the 0 does not denote a state in which the monad exists, since upon annihilation it ceases to exist. Therefore, the monad cannot exist in two states: it exists only in the state refered to by the number 1. Or how do you see it?

2) On page 6 you write that monads can change spontaneously. Is that property mentioned in the literature, or is it your own addition?

3) Suppose I have an object A and an object B that are separated by 8 monads, analoguous to the situation in figure 1. Their distance is then 8. Now one of these intermediate monads changes state spontaneously: as a result, the distance between the objects A and B is then 7. Is there then any way of finding out which monad has annihilated? In other words: do we have to see the monads as particles so that we can say we have this monad here and that monad there, or do we have to see them as quanta that merely aggregrate (like digital dollars in a bank account: if you withdraw a dollar, it is senseless to ask which one of the 8 dollars on the account has been withdrawn)?

Best regards,

Marcoen

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Author Akinbo Ojo replied on Aug. 5, 2013 @ 08:48 GMT
Thank you Marcoen. I knew to expect good and objective commentary from you.

1). Your observation is correct. Indeed, following additional insights gained from FQXi community I have improved my argument. You may read that in the judgement in the case of Atomistic Enterprises Inc. vs. Plato & Ors delivered on Jul. 28, 2013 @ 11:39 GMT and posted above. With that I think my position becomes stronger. That state designated 0 is the Platonic point. It has no dimension, it does not exist but yet in Plato's words it is not a geometric fiction! This satisfies Wheeler's contention that Space must derive its meaning, function and existence from Bits. It also satisfies Newton's desire for a space that can act and be acted upon. In short, Points and Monads are the binary states of space.

2). That property is not mentioned in the literature. However, if we are to make room for some indeterminism, it must occur occasionally. This will allow for free will, intuition, etc in a digital universe.

3) Excellent comment. I don't think there is anyway we can find ut which dollar is annihilated. The best we can observe is that a length has shortened or lengthened by some phenomena.

Very grateful for these comments.

Best regards,

Akinbo



Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet replied on Aug. 5, 2013 @ 11:36 GMT
Akinbo,

About the state designated by 0 not being a geometric fiction.

For non-negative integers x and y, I introduce the notation | x, y > for a physical system consisting of x monads in the state 0 and y monads in the state 1.

Now consider the systems | x, y >, | 2*x, y >, and | x, 2*y > for any positive x and y. It is obvious that the last system can be physically distinguished from the first two, as it has more monads in the state 1: this system should thus have more spatial extension than the other two. My question is: if the state 0 is not a fiction, then how are the systems | x, y > and | 2*x, y > physically different?

I am interested in your answer.

With best regards,

Marcoen

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Aug. 5, 2013 @ 12:20 GMT
Dear Marcoen,

First let me correct my sentence in 3) above. The moment you mentioned dollars, monad annihilated from my brain! It should read, I don't think there is anyway we can find out which monad is annihilated. The best we can observe is that a length has shortened or was lengthened by some phenomena. At the kind of size we are talking about no measuring instrument can detect a monad other than by reductio ad absurdum arguments and encountered paradoxes if their presence is denied.

Then regarding your question, your assessment cannot be faulted, state | x, 2*y > is physically distinguishable and more extended than | x, y >, | 2*x, y > and there is no doubt at all about that! If we however wish to build a bridge across the theoretical physics divide with as little resistance as possible from the Platonic school, it may be better as the Judge did in my blog post to hold that even though the Point is of zero dimension and so it does not exist, since an existent state can arise from a non-existent one, it may in some sense be acceptable that that 0 state is not a fiction. Just a play with words really but in my opinion a small concessionary price to pay so that our physics can move forward in a reconciliatory mode. The alternative is to be asked to physically present a monad before any ground can be yielded on the nature of space (i.e. whether relational or substantival).

Best regards,

Akinbo



Marcoen J.T.F. Cabbolet replied on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 10:35 GMT
Akinbo,

Thanks for your reply. I already understood that I had to read 'monad' where you wrote 'dollar'. Your insistence that we must view the states denoted by 0 as some kind of entity introduces, as I see it, a metaphysical (i.e. unverifiable) element in the theory. But that is not necessarily an argument against it.

In my own work, by the way, I attempt to model 'space' as a semi-continuum, this is neither a continuum nor a discrete entity. The simplest one-dimensional model would be set of real numbers, together with the set of all open intervals (x-1, x+1) where the number 1 represents the Planck distance. These open intervals are then physical 'bits of space', somewhat comparable to your monads: together they form the one-dimensional space. This model is an oversimplification but it shows the principle of how space as a substance is built up in a semi-continuum.

Best regards,

Marcoen

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eAmazigh M. HANNOU wrote on Aug. 5, 2013 @ 22:40 GMT
Dear Akinbo,

We are at the end of this essay contest.

In conclusion, at the question to know if Information is more fundamental than Matter, there is a good reason to answer that Matter is made of an amazing mixture of eInfo and eEnergy, at the same time.

Matter is thus eInfo made with eEnergy rather than answer it is made with eEnergy and eInfo ; because eInfo is eEnergy, and the one does not go without the other one.

eEnergy and eInfo are the two basic Principles of the eUniverse. Nothing can exist if it is not eEnergy, and any object is eInfo, and therefore eEnergy.

And consequently our eReality is eInfo made with eEnergy. And the final verdict is : eReality is virtual, and virtuality is our fundamental eReality.

Good luck to the winners,

And see you soon, with good news on this topic, and the Theory of Everything.

Amazigh H.

I rated your essay.

Please visit My essay.

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Charles Raldo Card wrote on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 04:00 GMT
Late-in-the-Day Thoughts about the Essays I’ve Read

I am sending to you the following thoughts because I found your essay particularly well stated, insightful, and helpful, even though in certain respects we may significantly diverge in our viewpoints. Thank you! Lumping and sorting is a dangerous adventure; let me apologize in advance if I have significantly misread or misrepresented...

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Margriet Anne O\'Regan wrote on Aug. 6, 2013 @ 16:47 GMT
Hello Akinbo, from Margriet O'Regan from DownUnder !

I'm so cross with myself for leaving it too late to discuss your essay properly, as there is quite a lot I would have liked to have said.

I did not know that Wheeler said - as you quote in your essay :-

Wheeler was in the forefront of a grand scheme to reduce physics to geometry.

This he called 'geometrodynamics'...

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Author Akinbo Ojo wrote on Aug. 7, 2013 @ 08:40 GMT
Hello Margriet,

Thanks for sharing your thoughts.

If you come out every evening for 7 days and gaze at the night sky, on the first night you look up and see the moon, then you go back in and write 1, the next night you do same and write 1 again. On the third night you gaze again and there is no moon, then you write 0, etc until you have 1100011...

So when you say, "each literally carries some information on its back", what is carrying the information on its back on those nights when no moon was sighted?

Can a friend who was not with you on those nights, seeing those digits not know the information of those days when there was a moon and when there was none? That is why Barbour says as I quote in my say that though the digits are abstract, they must stand for something concrete... Just some more food for thought for you

Stay blessed!

Akinbo




Jonathan J. Dickau wrote on Aug. 8, 2013 @ 23:33 GMT
Congratulations Akinbo!

I see it's now official - according to Brendan's contest blog - you are in the finals. Good luck! I hope the expert reviewers are kind.

All the Best,

Jonathan

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Peter Jackson wrote on Aug. 9, 2013 @ 09:40 GMT
Akinbo,

Congratulations, I was watching your bumpy roller coaster ride nervously. It must have been exhausting! Looking forward to working with you. We need to catch up on each of our papers as I think the whole may be stronger than the sums describing the parts!

Best of luck in the final judging.

Peter

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