RECENT ARTICLES

Accounting for quantum fuzziness could help us measure space and time—and the cosmos—more accurately.

Is there are sweet spot where artificial intelligence systems could have the maximum amount of consciousness while retaining powerful quantum properties?

To build the ultimate artificial mimics of real life systems, we may need to use quantum memory.

A radical interpretation of physics makes quantum theory more personal.

Carlo Rovelli describes how black holes may transition to "white holes," according to loop quantum gravity, a radical rewrite of fundamental physics.

FQXI ARTICLE

June 24, 2017

Inferring the Limits on Reality (that Even the Gods Must Obey)

The fuzziness of the quantum realm could arise from mathematical restrictions on what can ever be known.

FQXi Awardees: David Wolpert

June 24, 2015

David Wolpert

Santa Fe Institute

Such statements (made with "very heavy air quotes") are the consequence of limits that Wolpert has derived on the ability of any so-called "inference device" (a machine which can observe and/or control the world around itself). Rather than analyzing various pantheons, Wolpert is interested in the mathematical restrictions on what information a device can have concerning a system and the implications those restrictions have for the laws of physics. He has discovered constraints that look remarkably similar to those that physicists have long been familiar with from quantum theory, for instance, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. Wolpert’s findings could help physicists finally understand the origin of this famous fuzziness in the quantum realm. It could as arise from unavoidable formal restrictions on what can be known.

Wolpert’s fascination with foundational questions began when he was studying for a PhD in physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "Probably everybody, as a grad student in physics, has this dream that they will figure out the ultimate theory of everything," says Wolpert, who is now at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico.

In 1998, while still a graduate student, Wolpert attended a workshop on complex systems at Santa Fe, where he met John Wheeler, an eminent physicist at Princeton University, who had already championed the idea of linking information with the quantum. In his just published autobiography, Wheeler had said, "I suggest that we may never understand this strange thing, the quantum, until we understand how information may underlie reality." Despite his formidable stature as a physicist, Wheeler was interested in what Wolpert had to say. "I was sort of taken aback that he wanted to go on a walk and know more about what I, a grad student, thought about these things," says Wolpert.

Inference Devices

Wolpert can’t recall exactly what he told Wheeler—but it was likely about his early attempts to understand how we can make predictions about physical reality. Wolpert realized that any attempt to "know" reality involves either observing physical quantities, remembering past values of such quantities and/or predicting or controlling their future values. He found that all these processes—different ways of having "semantic information" about the state of the universe—share some common mathematical features. He called any device that implements those features an "inference device" (Physica D 237:1257-1281, 2008).

Inference devices are physical machines that obey the normal rules of mathematics and logic. The only

Wolpert proved that it’s impossible for one inference device (device A) to both know its own answer to an arbitrary question and to also know the answer to the same question by a different inference device B. The same holds true for B. This limitation holds no matter what the laws of physics actually are—the limits apply in any universe.

Are there clouds in the sky?

You may think you know the answer, but can you know someone else’s answer

to the same question?

Credit: Wiki Commons

To understand this connection between inference devices and quantum rules, suppose that two inference devices A and B are both asked a question about the state of one another, as before. But instead of analyzing whether the precise answers A and B give are always correct, instead calculate,"What is the probability that A is correct?" and "What is the probability that B is correct?"

One can take this kind of analysis one step further and calculate the best possible values of the probabilities of A knowing B’s answer and B knowing A’s answer, simultaneously. "You can actually prove that that product of probabilities obeys something that looks very much like the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics," says Wolpert.

In other words, there’s a limit to how well A can know B’s answer and B can know A’s answer simultaneously (just think of A and B as gods, and you have your argument against a polytheistic universe).

Physicist Philippe Binder of the University of Hawaii in Hilo says that Wolpert’s work is "very good and of foundational importance." Writing in the journal

Destroying Demons

Laplace introduced the idea of a hypothetical super-intelligent ’demon’ that can predict the future state of the universe if it has complete knowledge of the current state. But, by using Wolpert’s framework, one can model the current avatar of any such demon as an inference device, while the future avatar of the demon must be regarded as another inference device. (This is because the state of the universe changes from one moment to another and inference devices can only be defined within the context of one given state of the universe.) Wolpert’s work shows that the current avatar of the demon cannot know with absolute certainty the future avatar’s knowledge about the state of the universe. In other words, Laplace’s demon cannot predict without uncertainty. (This is true even if one assumes a classical, finite, non-chaotic universe, as Laplace did.)

Wolpert’s results “slam the door”

on scientific determinism

on scientific determinism

- Philippe Binder

FQXi member Paul Davies, of the Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, says that Wolpert tackles the question of how something that is a part of the universe can understand the whole. "It is getting one level deeper to the nature of reality," says Davies.

Wolpert is now using a $50,000 FQXi grant to investigate whether the intriguing connection he uncovered between inference devices and the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics can be tightened and even extended. If it can, that would help physicists understand the origin of one of the basic principles that governs reality.

Inference devices could also help to reveal the links between Claude Shannon’s theory of "syntactic information" and thermodynamics. The best example of that relationship is the Landauer principle—due to physicist Rolf Landauer—which says that you cannot reset even a single bit of information (whether it is a 0 or a 1) without releasing heat. In separate work, Wolpert has extended that work beyond just erasing a bit, but an arbitrary stochastic process evolving a system forward in time. Now he wants to figure out whether this result has any bearing on his work on inference devices, which involves semantic rather than syntactic information. "Information has ultimately got to involve both," says Wolpert.

But even a monotheistic God may have to accept some limitations when it comes to such information. With his tongue back in his cheek, Wolpert says that God can get the universe rolling, but can’t interfere with its functioning afterwards. "Or, after someone else gets the universe going, you can interfere, but you can’t do both," says Wolpert. Deism is allowed, he says, but not the traditional Abrahamic God.

Comment on this Article

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

function ValidatePostText_main () {
form = document.addPostForm_main;
if (form.postText_main.value == '') {
alert ("The post contains no text");
return false;
}
else {
return true;
}
}

**Your name:**
(optional)

**Important:** In order to combat spam, please select the letter in this menu between 'N' and 'P':
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Recent Comments

read all article comments

Please read the important Introduction that governs your participation in this community. Inappropriate language will not be tolerated and posts containing such language will be deleted. Otherwise, this is a free speech Forum and all are welcome!

Please enter the text of your post, then click the "Submit New Post" button below. You may also optionally add file attachments below before submitting your edits.

HTML tags are not permitted in posts, and will automatically be stripped out. Links to other web sites are permitted. For instructions on how to add links, please read the link help page.

You may use superscript (10

^{100}) and subscript (A_{2}) using [sup]...[/sup] and [sub]...[/sub] tags.You may use bold (

**important**) and italics (*emphasize*) using [b]...[/b] and [i]...[/i] tags.You may also include LateX equations into your post.

Insert LaTeX Equation
[hide]

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

LaTeX equations may be displayed in FQXi Forum posts by including them within [equation]...[/equation] tags. You may type your equation directly into your post, or use the LaTeX Equation Preview feature below to see how your equation will render (this is recommended).

For more help on LaTeX, please see the LaTeX Project Home Page.

LaTeX Equation Preview

preview equation

clear equation

insert equation into post at cursor

Attachments
[hide]

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

You may optionally attach up to two documents to your post. To add an attachment, use the following feature to browse your computer and select the file to attach. The maximum file size for attachments is 1MB.

Once you're done adding file attachments, click the "Submit New Post" button to add your post.

GENIES ALAN wrote on May 18, 2017

obat asam lambung

toko obat qnc jelly gamat

obat asam lambung

toko obat qnc jelly gamat

GENIES ALAN wrote on May 18, 2017

In the middle of the journey of our life I came to myself within a dark wood where the straight way was lost.

[url=http://obatasamlambung.org/]obat asam lambung

[linkhttp://www.tokoagengreenworldherbal.com/]toko obat qnc jelly gamat

obat alternatif qnc jelly gamat

menjual obat qnc jelly gamat

In the middle of the journey of our life I came to myself within a dark wood where the straight way was lost.

[url=http://obatasamlambung.org/]obat asam lambung

[linkhttp://www.tokoagengreenworldherbal.com/]toko obat qnc jelly gamat

obat alternatif qnc jelly gamat

menjual obat qnc jelly gamat

AMRIT wrote on January 22, 2016

Which is inertial mass of Higgs boson? Idea that Higgs boson is giving inertial mass to particles (photos and gluons excluded) open question which is inertial mass of the Higgs boson itself. Right answer will be awarded by 100.000 Euro by Foundation of Physics Institute - FOPI.

Which is inertial mass of Higgs boson? Idea that Higgs boson is giving inertial mass to particles (photos and gluons excluded) open question which is inertial mass of the Higgs boson itself. Right answer will be awarded by 100.000 Euro by Foundation of Physics Institute - FOPI.

read all article comments